How does a carnivore guild utilise a substantial but unpredictable anthropogenic food source? Scavenging on hunter-shot ungulate carcasses by wild dogs/dingoes, red foxes and feral cats in south-eastern Australia revealed by camera traps.
... Australia, 4 Melbourne Water, Reefton, Victoria, Australia Abstract There is much interest in understanding how anthropogenic food resources subsidise carnivore populations. Carcasses of hunter-shot ungulates are a potentially substantial food source for mammalian carnivores. The sambar deer (Rusa unicolor) is a large ($150 kg) exotic ungulate that can be ... decomposition in warm periods, low wild dog densities and the availability of alternative food resources. Citation: Forsyth DM, Woodford L, Moloney PD, Hampton JO, Woolnough AP, et al. (2014) How Does a Carnivore Guild Utilise a Substantial but Unpredictable Anthropogenic Food Source? Scavenging on Hunter-Shot Ungulate Carcasses by Wild Dogs/Dingoes, Red ... email@example.com and particularly those food resources that are provided directly or indirectly by people (i.e. anthropogenic ). Many mammalian carnivores scavenge the carcasses of domestic livestock [7,9,13]. In Alberta, cattle carcasses at ranchers’ boneyards (where livestock are dumped) were an important food source for wolves (Canis lupis) during
Fox squirrels match food assessment and cache effort to value and scarcity.
... eating and caching. Squirrels first ‘‘paw manipulate’’ a food item, holding it loosely in Introduction Food storing allows animals to take advantage of excess food in relation to current demand , survive periods of scarcity, and reduce foraging time during future food searches . Because food- storing animals either consume items immediately or ... competing interests exist. * E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org current economic climate (e.g., current food abundance and the competition for that food) . Food- storing decisions are part of a multi-step process that is sensitive to multiple aspects of food quality and the environment [9–12]. To adjust the cost-benefit ratio properly for a cache, the scatter ... of such assessment has been notably absent as a variable in prior models of foraging. Models of food- storing behavior indicate that an animal’s ability to obtain information about the future value of food can improve food- storing decisions . Assessment of food items before consumption or storage is a common and important behavior in diverse species,
A Common Mechanism Underlying Food Choice and Social Decisions.
... out-of-sample with minimal or no fitting. Results We show that a SSM fit to a food- choice experiment [15,16] is able to accurately predict choice and RT profiles in several different social-preference experiments. While these choice scenarios differ in terms of the types of rewards (food and money), the locations of the experiments (U.S. A. and Switzerland), ... study (which has been validated in multi-option choice in ) was θ = 0.3, meaning that the values of the unlooked-at food items are discounted by a factor of roughly a third during comparison. Here we hypothesize that, much like the unlooked-at food items, other peoples’ payoffs receive less weight than one’s own payoffs during the choice process. When subjects ... payoffs, so we set the value of d such that the product of d and the order of magnitude of v is always equal to 0.002 ms-1, the value from the food choice studies. See S2 Table for details. From the binary food- choice study we know that fixation durations do not depend on the values of the options so we can assume that, on average, each option is focused
Compilation and network analyses of cambrian food webs.
... the context of current food- web data and theory, and with regard to uncertainty in diet designations. Recent food- web data from diverse aquatic and terrestrial habitats [11–14] have supported the development of simple models that formalize and successfully predict food- web structure [15–18], comparative analyses of empirical foodweb structure [19–25], ... connectance; CI, confidence interval; L, number of links in a food web; Ma, million years ago; ME, model error; S, number of species, taxa, or nodes in a food web; TL, trophic level * To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: email@example.com 0693 April 2008 | Volume 6 | Issue 4 | e102 Cambrian Food Webs Author Summary atic preservational biases ... extinctions in response to perturbations in ancient food webs [28,29]. The second study incorporated an empirical component by generating sets of possible Permian and Triassic food webs from ‘‘metanetwork’’ data based on relatively coarse assignments of trophic interactions among guilds of species . Speciﬁc food webs were stochastically drawn from those
A circadian clock in the olfactory bulb anticipates feeding during food anticipatory activity.
... of Introduction Under daily food restriction many species develop food anticipatory activity (FAA), which is considered a behavioral output of a putative food entrainable oscillator (FEO) . Rather than being found in a single locus, it had been proposed that the FEO is a distributed system of interacting structures [2,3]. During food ingestion several ... after nursing suggest that MOB is important for synchronization when food is present, as not all nuclei related to food intake, e.g. in the brainstem, are synchronized by scheduled meal . But at the same time seems that lack of food also induces PER1 increase, perhaps indicating lack of food to other brain regions, similar to a previous report . ... of the food; one of them is the olfactory system. However, despite the fact that this structure plays an important role during meal ingestion , it has received little attention for its possible role in entrainment to cycles of food availability [5,6]. One excellent model to explore the role of olfactory cues in synchronization of rhythms by food is
Asymmetry in food handling behavior of a tree-dwelling rodent (Sciurus vulgaris).
... of different tasks associated to food handling by several bird and mammal species. Here, we analyzed asymmetry in handling behavior of pine cones by red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris). Red squirrels devote most of their daily activity to feeding, thus this species constitutes an appropriate model for studying asymmetry in food processing. We aimed to explore ... individuals . In birds, greater ability of the left hemisphere to recognize food has been demonstrated in pigeons (Columba livia), chickens (Gallus gallus) and zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) . On the other hand, preference for the left hind limb (right hemisphere) in handling food has been described in Australian parrots [28, 29], and similar results ... seeking its food under river stones [36, 37]. Regarding rodents, there are references to both left- and right-handed squirrels in relation to the way they handle pine cones in field guides of animal tracks [38, 39], but systematic research covering this topic has not been conducted until now. Squirrels are excellent models to test for asymmetry in food handling
Natural food production for aquaculture: Cultivation and nutrition of Chironomid larvae (Insecta, Diptera)
... that contain yeast, algae and Tetramin flake food that are explained in Table 1. Chironomids food composition expressed in percentages of organic matter (Habashy 2005) Table 1 Parameters Organic matter Protein Lipid Carbohydrates Energy content (KJ/g) Tetramin 87.6 37.6 6.3 30.1 14.4 Types of food Algae 95.8 36.8 9.6 42.6 17.7 Yeast 93.7 ... used as live food for Huso huso. Red color of this ‘blood worm’ attracts fish larvae which eat it with the specific appetite. In some cases, for high density production, a fly room is necessary and this can be prepared with wood and net. In this way larvae production is possible all year long. Key word: Chironimid flies, larvae, tray, live food, incubation ... from the study of Ashe & Cranston (1990); the best cultivation environment and food are the most important elements in Chironomid culture. Their growth period is related to their environmental features (Murray 1976). The other important sector is quantity and availability of food (Mackey 1977ab; Vos et al 2000). Chironomid larvae are rich resource of
Analysis of Consumers´ Attitudes Towards Food Additives Using Focus Group Survey
... REVIEW 193 Analysis of Consumers’ Attitudes Towards Food Additives Using Focus Group Survey Gábor TARNAVÖLGYI SUMMARY Food additives are getting more and more importance among the consumers’ food safety concerns. In this research attitudes towards food additives were analyzed in three focus groups: common consumers, doctors and food industry experts by qualitative ... TARNAVÖLGYI INTRODUCTION Food industry underwent a great development in the 20th century. The technological improvement was accompanied by increasing use of food additives (DIEHL, 2002). In the 1960s the European Community established the positive list of permitted food additives, then the European numbering system, in which food additives were identified ... DISCUSSION Judgment of food additives by common consumers The majority of respondents in the consumers’ focus groups have basically negative feelings about food additives. They recognize that these substances have some technological functions, but they think that food processors only add them to the products in order to make foods more marketable,
MICROBIOLOGY OF RAW MATERIALS USED FOR CONFECTIONARY PRODUCTION
... Poultry Science, 51, 163-169.DOI: 10.1080/00071668.2010.482462. ICMSF, 2005. Microrganisms in Foods.Microbial Ecology of food commodities. Chap 11: Oil and Fat based foods. 2nd edition. New York: Kluwer Academic/ Plenum Publishers; 480-521. JAY J. Modern food microbiology. 5th edition. USA: Chapman and Hall publisher; 1996. Fermentation and fermented ... microflora of wheat and flour .Food Australia, 41, 704-708. HENIN, A.Y., KALDES, Y.T. Microbiological evaluation of cooking butter manufactured in Minia Governorate. Beni-Suef Veterinary Medical Journal, 2(2), 291-297. HUIS IN’T VELD, J.H.J. 1998. Microbial and biochemical spoilage of foods: an overview. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 33(1), 1-18. ... BELAY,N. 2001.Bacillus cereus. Microbiological Examination of Foods, (Eds. PF Downes, K Ito), American Public Health Association, Washington DC, 311-324. BERGHOFER, L.K., HOCKING, A.D., MISKELLY, D., JANSSON,E. 2003 .Microbiology of wheat and flour milling in Australia.International Journal of Food Microbiology, 85, 137-149.DOI: 10.1016/S0168-1605(02)00507-X
Review of the regulatory framework on genetically modified food and feed in Albania: a policy perspective
... their food. This is the source of the EU's "novel food" regulations and the basis for their efforts to prevent the sale of GMO products without adequate labelling. USA does not treat the two issues as distinct - their food labelling system is only designed to address food safety concerns, no matter how the food was developed. Thus USA does not have a food ... commercial purposes. Food safety instruments focus in addressing the risks posed to humans by genetically modified foods. The general goal of these instruments is to minimize risks to humans presented by GMOs or their products used as foods themselves or as ingredients in food. Especially in EU, such instruments tend to cover the entire human food chain from ... the use of GMOs in food and feed products is the Food Law. This law consists of a general framework 233 Review of the regulatory framework on genetically modified food and feed in Albania: a policy perspective act and defines the main regulatory elements related to food and feed products. This law provides a framework for Food Safety and Consumer
ENHANCING FOOD SAFETY AND STABILITY THROUGH IRRADIATION: A REVIEW
... irradiation in food processing with the emphasis on food safety and stability. Keywords: Irradiation, radiation sources, food safety, shelf-life, disinfestation INTRODUCTION Food preservation is a process to extend the shelf life of foods while maintaining their safety and organoleptic properties. It involves the actions taken to maintain foods with ... been investigated (Junqueira-Gonçalves et al., 2011). Among them food irradiation is considered as one of the most effective methods of food preservation. Food irradiation is the exposure of food to controlled amounts of ionizing radiation to improve microbiological safety and stability. Food irradiation technology is being used in an increasing number ... radioactivity in food. Xradiation penetrates foods more shallowly than gamma irradiation but much more deeply than electron beams (Sadler et al., 2001; Tahergorabi et al., 2012). APPLICATIONS OF FOOD IRRADIATION Radiation processing of food and agricultural commodities has been recognized as one of the most reliable and safest methods, for preservation of food
Coliformes em água de abastecimento de lojas fast-food da Região Metropolitana de Recife (PE, Brasil).
... TEMAS LIVRES FREE THEMES Coliformes em água de abastecimento de lojas fast -food da Região Metropolitana de Recife (PE, Brasil) Coliforms in the water supply of fast -food chains in the Metropolitan Region of Recife, in the state of Pernambuco (Brazil) 2653 Maria Anunciada Leal Porto 1 Amanda ... Universidade Federal de Pernambuco. Abstract A guaranteed supply of clean drinking water in food outlets is a relevant subject for public health. The scope of this study was to assess the microbiological quality of 96 water samples of a network of fast -food stores in the city of Recife (state of Pernambuco, Brazil) and Metropolitan Area and to compare ... respectively. The quality of the water in the food establishments studied is thus a health hazard since a significant percentage of samples analyzed were inappropriate for human consumption in accordance with current legislation, which stipulates the absence of total coliforms and thermotolerant coliforms. Key words Water, Fast -food, Total coliforms, Thermotolerant
Informações nutricionais e de saúde disponibilizadas aos consumidores por restaurantes comerciais, tipo fast food e full service.
... labeling of food. 21 CFR § 101.9. Disponível em: . Acesso em: 11 abr. 2005. COESTIER, B.; GOZLAN, E.; MARETTE, S. On food companies liability for obesity. American Agricultural Economics Association, v. 87, n. 1, p. 1-14, 2005. CRANAGE, D. A.; CONKLIN, M. T.; LAMBERT, C. U. Effect of nutrition information in perceptions of food ... nutrient declaration highlighting the energy value and macronutrients of some foods. Nearly most of the respondents (48,3%) mentioned the use of the menu to display nutritional information. The frequency with which this information was provided was significantly higher in the fast food networks than amongst the full service restaurants. The need for public ... Restaurantes de Campinas (2005), CEASA (2005), Guia EPTV (2004) e sítios eletrônicos específicos das grandes redes de fast food, além de consulta em listas telefônicas. Esta pesquisa resultou num conjunto de 107 restaurantes fast food e 507 restaurantes full service listados. Contatos por telefone foram realizados para a confirmação do tipo de linha
Implementação de um sistema Collaborative Planning, Forecasting, and Replenishment em uma grande rede de fast food por meio de um prestador de serviços logísticos.
... encerraram-se em agosto de 2005. Esti- veram diretamente envolvidos no projeto 9 proﬁssionais corporativos da rede de fast -food, 12 representando os fornecedores, 6 do PSL e 30 funcionários dos restaurantes da rede de fast -food. A Figura 1 ilustra a estrutura da pesquisa realizada. O estudo analisou o projeto de implementação de CPFR mediante três ... qualidade assegurada, pelo desenvolvimento de novos produtos (em conjunto com a rede de fast -food) e pela gestão da cadeia a montante (inbound). A Figura 2 ilustra as relações entre as partes componentes da CS estudada. Destaca-se que essa estrutura da CS da rede de fast -food, com o PSL coordenando o abastecimento e o trânsito de informações entre os agentes, ... e PSL Informação Informação Montante Rede de Fast Food Jusante Demanda Suprimento Figura 2. Visão da cadeia de suprimentos estudada. integração gerencial. No caso, o ciclo de relação existente na cadeia estudada permite essa aplicação para implementação de novos métodos de gestão. 4 Implementação do CPFR mediante um PSL em uma rede de fast -food Este tópico destaca
Mensuração da qualidade de serviço em empresas de fast food.
... e outras questões foram inseridas. As dimensões da qualidade utilizadas são: tangibilidade, food, confiabilidade, presteza, cortesia e empatia. Com exceção da dimensão food, que foi baseada no estudo desenvolvido por Johns e Howard (1998) em empresas do setor foodservice, as dimensões estão baseadas no instrumento SERVQUAL desenvolvido por Parasuraman ... existentes às especificidades das empresas fast food. Essa adaptação foi baseada em dados secundários e entrevista em profundidade com especialistas do setor. Foram verificados trabalhos acadêmicos nacionais e internacionais sobre o assunto e as dimensões da qualidade utilizadas por uma das maiores redes fast food do Brasil na mensuração da qualidade em ... itens, um na dimensão food e outro na dimensão presteza, o coeficiente foi recalculado, chegando a valores entre 0,50 e 0,67, o que indica que a escala utilizada é internamente consistente e confiável. Nunally (1967) sugere que coeficientes alpha entre 0,5 e 0,8 são aceitáveis. Para mensurar a qualidade de serviço em empresas fast food, foi realizado
Using biogeochemical data assimilation to assess the relative skill of multiple ecosystem models: effects of increasing the complexity of the planktonic food web
... relative skill of multiple ecosystem models: effects of increasing the complexity of the planktonic food web BGD Full Screen / Esc Printer-friendly Version Interactive Discussion 5 BGD 11, 481–520, 2014 Effects of increasing the complexity of the planktonic food web Y. Xiao and M. A. M. Friedrichs Title Page Abstract Introduction Conclusions References Tables Figures ◭ ◮ ◭ ◮ Back Close | Discussion ... Bight. The five models are identical except for variations in the level of complexity included in the lower trophic levels, which range from a simple 1P1Z food web to a considerably more complex 3P2Z food web. The five models assimilated satellite-derived chlorophyll and particulate organic carbon concentrations at four continental shelf sites, and the ... complexity of the planktonic food web Y. Xiao and M. A. M. Friedrichs Title Page Abstract Introduction Conclusions References Tables Figures ◭ ◮ ◭ ◮ Back Close | Discussion Paper | 496 Discussion Paper 25 | 20 Discussion Paper 15 | 10 In this study, five lower trophic level ecosystem models with varying food web complexities were
Program policies in food and nutrition
... Executive Committee. It is proposed to strengthen the Regional Food and Nutrition Program, with additional emphasis on the food component, through: food aid programs and subsidized distribution of food, food security at the level of the family, and food and nutrition education. Impetus will be given to food and nutrition surveillance in order to promote the ... Chronic Diseases .......... Determinants i. 2. III. NUTRITION Nutritional I. 2. 3. 4. 5. B. ........................ of Food and Nutrition Problems Food Supply ..................... Food Intake and Biological Utilization AND NUTRITION STRATEGIES AND PROGRAMS ....... ........ .......... Food Aid Programs .................... Food Security at the Family and Community Level Food and Nutrition Education ............... AND NUTRITION A. Food B. C. Improvement of ... public agency that is to implement the programs. B. Food Security at the times Food security is the to food in sufficient Family and Community capacity of all quantity and Level persons to have access of adequate quality at all for an GEl01/10 Page ii Table (Eng.) 3 CUMULATIVE VALUE OF FOOD AID, WORLD FOOD PROGRAM (WFP): DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS AND
CD33.R16: Policy and lines of action in food and nutrition
... planning, execution, and evaluation of food and nutrition strategies directed at low-income populations and priority groups; b) Food and nutrition surveillance; c) Distribution of food to priority groups, especially mothers and children and other groups at the poverty level; d) Education and social communication in food and nutrition, including warning ... COMMITTEE Washington D.C., 26-30 September 1988 RESOLUTION CD33.R16 POLICY AND LINES OF ACTION IN FOOD AND NUTRITION THE 33rd DIRECTING COUNCIL, Having seen Document CD33/23 on the Organization's? ?food? ?and nutrition policy; Considering the persistence of serious food and nutrition problems in the Region, largely due to the marginal social and economic conditions ... populations and groups at high biological risk, in order to improve their nutritional status; b) To carry out measures for improving the food habits of the population that will result in a nutritionally balanced diet; c) To step up food and nutrition activities in national health systems and under the primary health care strategy, with broad social participation,
PAHO plan of action for food safety
... and distributing manuals on techniques of analysis (chemical, microbiological, parasitologlcal, etc.) for food control. HSD • Organizing and conducting regional and country courses in aspects of: HSD ECO - Food Food Food Food Food chemistry microbiology parasitology virology toxicology USEPA USFDA USDA LNR (MEX) LUCAM INTA (ARG) LANARA(BRA) CLEIBA(PER) -8- Linkage with ... for food protection. HPE Promotion of formulation of food protection programs, . Cooperating in formulation, monitoring and evaluation of food protection programs. Dissemination information• . Keeping authorities and HBI professionals in the specialty informed on advances in analysis techniques, food legislation, food- borne diseases (FBD), and food ... have adopted policies, strategies, and technologies for improving food protection, thereby: - Producing nutritive, - Reducing diseases; a supply palatable human of foods that and inexpensive; and morbidity - Reducing losses and other and marketing of foods; - Improving the conditions food market and reducing Activities under the are safe, wholesome, from food- borne mortallty effects injurious in the for
Preliminary evaluation of the Caribbean Food and Nutrition Institute
... that CFNI should not develop programs in food microbiology and sanitation, food safety, or food legislation. Food technology programs, as required, should be conducted on a collaborative basis, with short-term consultants or UWI staff. Continued emphasis should be placed by national governments on collection of data on food supplies and health status. Such information ... balance between food niid nutrition activities in the Institute, and concluded the balance is appropriate, considering the raison d'etre for CFNI. It noted that, of the four impact objectives identified by CFNI, three (undernutrition, obesity, anemia) deal primarily with nutritional matters, while the fourth (maldistribution) deals primarily with food. The ... Meeting Washington, D.C. June 1980 Provisional Agenda Item 14 CE84/19, ADD. II (Eng.) 4 June 1980 ORIGINAL: ENGLISH PRELIMINARY EVALUATION OF THE CARIBBEAN FOOD AND NUTRITION INSTITUTE A. BACKGROUND The Caribbean Food and Nutrition Institute (CFNI), one of 10 PAHO Centers, serves 17 countries: 16 in the English-speaking Caribbean and Suriname. Most are small;
The role of small animal species in nutrition and food production
... basically made up of 14 foods, among them: cereals (42 per cent of the total weight), starchy foods (19 per cent), grain legumes (15 per cent), vegetables (6.5 per cent), and products of animal origin (close to 4 per cent). The average diet for the overall population includes cereals (57 per cent of the total weight), starchy foods and sugars (6.8 per cent), ... protein, and approximately 17 g total fat. It comprises 14 foods, some of which offer appreciable amounts of animal protein. Although the component foods are similar to those described in Table 1, this diet is nutritionally superior, more attractive, and more worthy of consumption. Sources of Animal Protein Nutrition surveys, as well as food composition tables from various ... protein requirements, food intake, and food conversion of four different animal species. Digestible energy (KCal/lcg) Crude protein (%) Total digestible nutrients (%) Swine Poultry Rabbit Beef cattle 3500-3300 3500-3100 2900-2600 18-13 18-13 16 11-13 79-75 70-80 65 60-64 2600 298 PAHO BULLETIN Table 9. Production Food intake (g/day) Conversion
Consideration of potential parasite food hazards
... parasites in feces can come in contact with food when feces are used as fertilizer or when an infected food processor-who may be anyone from a field worker to a food handler, cook, waiter, or housewife-does not practice good hygiene. Tables 1-3 show many of the parasites which man can acquire from contaminated food. Table 1 includes those parasites which ... Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma. the many food sources involved and the conditions under which such meals are prepared, distributed, and maintained. It is also necessary to keep in mind the many ways parasites can be transmitted to food. For example, there is an increasing potential for food contamination by solid wastes (feces) in some parts ... be transmitted by some intermediate invertebrate host that accidentally falls or crawls into food. Table 3 lists parasites contained in excreta which may reach human food by way of sewage, polluted water, or fertilizer. Either irrigation or flooding can lead to food contamination from polluted water; and in view of increasing pollution and recycling activities,
Food and nutrition: The work of the International Agencies in Latin America
... increasing need for 2) Availability of food more and more consultants. How much is known about the food availThrough these various means-short- and long-term consultants, fellowships and travel able at the various seasonsof the year? About food production techniques? grants, committees of experts, study groups, About the vield of food crons. etc.? About marketing ... financing of About the diseases, etc., affecting foodpersonnel and programs-the international stuffs? agencies have helped to bring home to the Latin About other causesof loss? About the nutritional value of foodstuffs American Governments the true significance of available at each different season of the year? food and nutrition as a national problem. What ... establishment of a Latin American register of professionals specializing in the various branches of food and nutrition; and (3) the establishment of the Latin American Center for scientific information on food and nutrition. ’ J c . Summary Until recently the food and nutrition activities of the international agencies have concentrated mainly on providing-
Food and nutrition surveillance in the English-Speaking Caribbean (Special report: Food and nutrition surveillance)
... Caribbean. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK For over 10 years, the Caribbean Food and Nutrition Institute (CFNI) has been working to establish food and nutrition surveillance systems (FNSS) in its Member Countries. This work has been based on the following guiding principles: 1. No single system of food and nutrition surveillance will be appropriate for all countries. 2. ... social history of the child’s family and, most importantly, the household food situation. If a child is malnourished, the first question that needs to be answered is, “Does the family have enough food to feed the child?” The management of children from families with and without adequate food is different. Tally sheets have been designed as an aid in preparation ... multisectoral food and nutrition surveillance system for the country. gresses, it is being formally evaluated in the hope that this evaluation can guide institutionalization of the system. Work is also in progress to systematize data collection, collation, and analysis of food availability by other sectors, for example, agriculture (food production),
The value of nutrition surveillance: A case study from the United States (Special report: Food and nutrition surveillance)
... multisectoral food and nutrition surveillance system for the country. gresses, it is being formally evaluated in the hope that this evaluation can guide institutionalization of the system. Work is also in progress to systematize data collection, collation, and analysis of food availability by other sectors, for example, agriculture (food production), ... Disease Control (CDC) are part of a broad range of nutrition-monitoring activities in the United States. These activities include surveys of food consumption patterns, the Food and Drug Administration’s surveys of food purchase patterns, and the National Center for Health Statistics’ (NCHS) surveys of nutritional status and dietary intake in a representative ... example, agriculture (food production), industry, and commerce (food imports and distribution). Attempts are also being made to integrate at the national level information Following the approach outlined from various sources so that a compreabove, 11 countries are at different stages hensive food and nutrition surveillance of implementing the new system