Edge-related loss of tree phylogenetic diversity in the severely fragmented Brazilian Atlantic forest.
... document drastic reductions in both tree species richness and the diversity of tree life-history traits in fragmented tropical rainforests [20–25], to date no studies are evaluating how these changes affect the phylogenetic diversity of the remaining tree assemblages. Here we use four abundance-based phylogenetic diversity metrics –mean phylogenetic distance (MPD), ... a significant loss of tree phylogenetic diversity. MPD measures the average phylogenetic distance among two random individuals drawn from a sample (including conspecifics); MNTD does the Introduction Understanding how habitat alteration affects biodiversity is a main challenge for ecologists and conservation biologists. Biodiversity has been mostly assessed ... between species extinction and evolutionary diversity is well understood theoretically [e.g. 12], there is little empirical information about the phylogenetic diversity of fragmented tropical forests. If extinction is a random process, even high rates of extinction may generate little loss in evolutionary diversity . However, empirical evidence
Analyzing mosquito (Diptera: culicidae) diversity in Pakistan by DNA barcoding.
... the species in a genus ranged from 2.3–17.8% with a mean of 8.2% (Table 1). Genetic diversity indices and results of neutrality tests for the barcodes are shown in Table 2. Average number of pairwise nucleotide differences (k), nucleotide diversity (p) and haplotype diversity (Hd) varied for the species. Fu’s Fs and Tajima’s D were significant for a ... aegypti S n Ae. albopictus Species Table 2. Genetic diversity indices and neutrality tests (Fu’s Fs and Tajima’s D) in the mtCOI-59 (barcode) sequences of 21 mosquito species from Pakistan. Analyzing Mosquito Diversity by DNA Barcoding May 2014 | Volume 9 | Issue 5 | e97268 Analyzing Mosquito Diversity by DNA Barcoding Figure 4. NJ analysis of ... Genetic diversity indices showed a higher genetic divergence in some species and not in others. For example, k and p values were higher in Cx. tritaeniorhynchus and lower in Cx. quinquefasciatus. Intraspecific diversity also varied in the species of Aedes and Anopheles. A recent study on Cx. quinquefasciatus from Malaysia  has reported a low COI diversity
Molecular characterization and genetic diversity analysis β-glucan content variability in grain of oat (Avena sativa L.)
... UDC 575:630 DOI: 10.2298/GENSR1402529D Original scientific paper MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION AND GENETIC DIVERSITY ANALYSIS β-GLUCAN CONTENT VARIABILITY IN GRAIN OF OAT (Avena sativa L.) Nevena H. DJUKIĆ1, Desimir S. KNEŽEVIĆ2 1 2 University of Kragujevac, Faculty of Science, Kragujevac, ... (HAGGARD et al., 2013; PARK et al., 2009; SCHULZE et al., 2004), they reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases (PEREIRA et al., 2004). CONCLUSIONS In this study established wide diversity of oat cultivars according to identified β-glucan contents in grain. Considering the fact that the contents of β-glucans can be increased by cultivation (and application
Biological diversity of the Minnesota caddisflies (Insecta, Trichoptera)
... A peer-reviewed open-access journal ZooKeys 189: 1–389 (2012) Biological diversity of the Minnesota caddisflies (Insecta, Trichoptera) doi: 10.3897/zookeys.189.2043 Monograph www.zookeys.org 1 Launched to accelerate biodiversity research Biological diversity of the Minnesota caddisflies (Insecta,Trichoptera) David C. Houghton1,2 1 Department ... 378 References............................................................................................................. 379 Biological diversity of the Minnesota caddisflies (Insecta, Trichoptera) 5 Introduction Biodiversity research Biological diversity research is necessary for an understanding of ecosystem ecology, organism conservation, and cladistic biogeography ... organismal biodiversity and concern over the potential ecological implications of this decline (e.g., Readka-Kudla et al. 1997). Biodiversity databases include both organismal distribution data and the environmental data associated with such distributions. These data are crucial to proposing hypotheses on the factors contributing to organismal biodiversity,
Expanded functional diversity of shaker K(+) channels in cnidarians is driven by gene expansion.
... cnidarian-specific expansions in 5 of 14 ancestral K+ channel families [2,3]. The large number of genes implies a high degree of diversity in the intrinsic electrical properties of cnidarian neurons and raises the question of why such diversity is needed in a comparatively simple nervous system. Part of the answer to this question is undoubtedly that cnidarian nervous ... functional diversity of Shaker channels in either mammals or cnidarians. Protostome invertebrate Shaker genes, in contrast, can have complex intron/exon structures and functionally significant alternative splicing. Drosophila Shaker, for instance, is alternatively spliced to produce channels with distinct inactivation kinetics [43,44]. Inactivation gating diversity ... that distinct Shaker channel combinations could contribute substantially to diversity of intrinsic electrical properties of neurons and other excitable cells in the Nematostella polyp. PLOS ONE | www.plosone.org 10 December 2012 | Volume 7 | Issue 12 | e51366 Shaker Channel Diversity in Nematostella vectensis Figure 6. Expression patterns of Nematostella
Öğretmenlerin ve okul yöneticilerinin görüşlerine göre anaokullarında farklılıkların yönetimi [Diversity management in preschools in the views of teachers and school administrators]
... staff diversity in preschools, positive organizational norms and values of diversity, and administrative policies and applications that considered staff diversity in schools. A full assessment of the obtained findings reveals that staff diversity in preschools is considered to be rich, differences are respected, and school administration regards diversity. These ... applications and administrative decisions based on diversity. Key Words: Diversity, Similarity, Diversity management, Preschool teaching, Preschool Atıf için / Please cite as: Memduhoğlu, H. B. & Ayyürek, O. (2014). Öğretmenlerin ve okul yöneticilerinin görüşlerine göre anaokullarında farklılıkların yönetimi [Diversity management in preschools in the views ... (Memduhoğlu, 2007). A diversity management approach highlights the advantages of diversity for organizations and seeks the prevention of disadvantages it may cause (Kirby & Ricard, 2000; Mollica 2003). By their nature, educational organizations include different demographic, social, and cultural factors. Research has shown that diversity in schools,
The influence of vegetation structure on spider species richness, diversity and community organization in the Apšuciems calcareous fen, Latvia
... Animal Biodiversity and Conservation 39.2 (2016) 221 The influence of vegetation structure on spider species richness, diversity and community organization in the Apšuciems calcareous fen, Latvia M. Štokmane & V. Spuņģis Štokmane, M. & Spuņģis, V., 2016. The influence of vegetation structure on spider species richness, diversity and community ... compare the species rich� ness, diversity and guild composition of spiders in the ground and in grass layers of ������������������������� the Apšuciems calcare� ous fen; and (2) to evaluate the potential influence of several vegetation parameters (namely, plant species richness, plant diversity and vegetation height) on the diversity and community organization ... richness and diversity in the fen, we used three indices: the number of observed species (S) as the primary indicator of plant/spider species richness, as well as the Shannon– Wiener index (H), and the Pielou’s evenness index (J) as a measure of species diversity. We chose these indices because they are among the most popular and most frequently used diversity
Do Farmers Using Conventional and Non-Conventional Systems of Agriculture Have Different Perceptions of the Diversity of Wild Birds? Implications for Conservation.
... biodiversity conservation . Their farming systems prioritize complexity, ecological interactions and effective use of natural resources. In addition, the diversification of their production systems contributes to the richness and maintenance of bird species [43, 44, 23]. Adopting a particular type of agriculture affects whether avifauna biodiversity ... LP, Muniz LS, Telino-Júnior WR, Albuquerque UP, Lyra-Neves RM (2016) Do Farmers Using Conventional and NonConventional Systems of Agriculture Have Different Perceptions of the Diversity of Wild Birds? Implications for Conservation. PLoS ONE 11(5): e0156307. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0156307 Editor: Andrew Hector, University of Oxford, UNITED KINGDOM Received: ... environments, including home gardens, which are considered a form of sustainable agriculture because they provide shelter and food for native species and help conserve agrobiodiversity . Different types of farming, including the specific practices adopted by farmers, may profoundly influence the local ecological knowledge held by farmers and the
Gender Inequality as Cultural Diversity
... ISSN 1973-2880 202 S. Jones, L. Cormier & L. Baker: Gender iniquity as Cultural Diversity Table 2: Confidence in Competency Areas Pre-test Item M SD Define Ethnography as a science Describe biological diversity and importance Describe Cultural Diversity and importance Demonstrate an understanding of traditional 7.56 1.878 6.33 ... subsistence based economy; cultural diversity; the way humans interact with their environment, and; how and why ethics are an important part of working with people. Antrocom Online Journal of Anthropology 2011, vol. 7. n. 2 – ISSN 1973-2880 199 S. Jones, L. Cormier & L. Baker: Gender iniquity as Cultural Diversity Gender Relations in Fiji ... S. Jones, L. Cormier & L. Baker: Gender iniquity as Cultural Diversity Cultural Anthropology 197 - 212 Gender Inequality as Cultural Diversity Lessons From a Field School Program in Fiji Sharyn Jones*, Loretta A. Cormier, and Lisa R. Baker University of Alabama at
Genetic and genomic diversity studies of Acacia symbionts in Senegal reveal new species of Mesorhizobium with a putative geographical pattern.
... genetic and genomic diversity of A. senegal and A. seyal mesorhizobia symbionts from diverse origins in Senegal and investigated possible correlations between the genetic diversity of the strains, their soil of origin (being under salt-stress or not), and their tolerance to salinity. We first studied at a fine scale the genetic diversity of a collection ... with putatively several new species that remain to be defined [22,33]. Inferring diversity in the Mesorhizobium genus proved to be difficult when using only the 16S rRNA ribosomal PLOS ONE | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0117667 February 6, 2015 2 / 20 Acacia Mesorhizobia Diversity in Salted Areas of Senegal taxonomic marker due to its high conservation ... rapidly the species of a given strain. It is often difficult to correlate the genetic diversity of rhizobia and their tolerance to several stresses as salinity. Several studies have underlined the lack of correlation between the sampling sites characteristics, the genetic diversity of rhizobia and their tolerance to salinity [33,45,46], while others authors
Molecular Characterization and Genetic Diversity Analysis of Sweet Orange )Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) Cultivars in Iraq Using RAPD Markers
... strategy to identify Citrus species, cultivars and biotypes and to investigate the genetic diversity of Citrus species. Molecular marker techniques like RAPD, ISSR, RFLP, SSR, AFLP and other markers have been used for germplasm characterization, studies of genetic diversity, systematics and phylogenetic analysis . Among them, random amplified polymorphic ... indicated despite the existence of substantial diversity among cultivated genotypes in respect of morphological, physiological and agronomic traits, very little DNA variation has been detected using DNA markers . In Citrus, RAPD markers have been used for cultivar identification, genetic mapping, genetic diversity assessment and other breeding programs ... Aka-Kacar, Y.; Tuzcu, O. and Gulsen, O. (2009) Genetic diversity and relationships within Citrus and related genera based on sequence related amplified polymorphism markers (SRAPs). Scientia Horticulturae, 121: 306–312. 15. Barkley, N.A.; Roose, M.L.; Krueger, R.R. and Federici, C.T. (2006). Assessing genetic diversity and population structure in a citrus
Market Risk Reporting by the World’s Top Banks: Evidence on the Diversity of Reporting Practice and the Implications for International Accounting Harmonisation
... MARKET RISK REPORTING BY THE WORLD’S TOP BANKS: EVIDENCE ON THE DIVERSITY OF REPORTING PRACTICE AND THE IMPLICATIONS FOR INTERNATIONAL ACCOUNTING HARMONISATION INFORMACIÓN SOBRE RIESGO DE MERCADO POR LOS MAYORES BANCOS MUNDIALES: EVIDENCIA ... Business School ABSTRACT The increasing adoption of international accounting standards and global convergence of accounting regulations is frequently heralded as serving to reduce diversity in financial reporting practice. In a process said to be driven in large part by the interests of international business and global financial markets, one might expect ... multinational financial corporations. This paper challenges such claims and presumptions. Its content analysis of longitudinal data for the period 2000-2006 reveals substantial, on going diversity in the market risk disclosure practices, both numerical and narrative, of the world’s top-25 banks. The significance of such findings is reinforced by the sheer scale
Exploring germplasm diversity to understand the domestication process in Cicer spp. using SNP and DArT markers.
... has grown , and wild relatives are now commonly seen as a key source of genetic diversity that can be used to increase diversity in breeding material [7,9]. Diversity estimates of germplasm collections have not been universally performed to assess the scope of diversity available in existing collections. Such estimates are critical for providing ... addition, another high-throughput marker system, Diversity arrays technology (DArT), has proven useful for screening large numbers of loci in crops with low genetic diversity, and DArT markers for chickpea have recently been developed . The present study is focused on the assessment of relationships in a diversity panel of chickpea which includes breeding ... www.plosone.org 3 July 2014 | Volume 9 | Issue 7 | e102016 Germplasm Diversity to Understand Chickpea Domestication Figure 2. Polymorphism information content (PIC) value of markers used in study. a. PIC value of SNP markers used for diversity analysis. b. PIC value of DArT markers used for diversity analysis. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0102016.g002 later
Global diversity of marine isopods (except Asellota and crustacean symbionts).
... 3154 Families marked * have non-marine/freshwater genera and species not counted in this analysis. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0043529.t001 Taxonomic diversity Thirty-seven families are discussed here, ranging in diversity from one to hundreds of genera and species (Table 1). Some have freshwater representatives discussed in a similar context by Wilson  ... included in the GOODS upper bathyal provinces. No data are available for a small number of known species. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0043529.t002 Marine Isopod Diversity our understanding of isopod diversity, biogeography and evolution. Feldmann & Charbonnier  demonstrated the difficulty of assigning fossils to taxon with the case of a fossil described ... habitats. In shallow water isopods generally avoid habitats with high levels of silt, and diversity consequently drops in estuaries, mangroves and coral reef lagoon habitats. In shallow sediments (intertidal to 30 m) mobile sands and gravel are strongly preferred; diversity and densities are higher than over stable sand areas with worm tubes or sea grasses. Sandy
Drought-adaptation potential in Fagus sylvatica: linking moisture availability with genetic diversity and dendrochronology.
... that moisture availability is indeed a selective force shaping population genetics. Genetic diversity at dry and mesic sites The sites at the moisture boundary contained slightly lower levels of genetic diversity. The center-periphery hypothesis proposes lower diversity at the boundary of a species occurrence, a pattern which might be mainly linked ... comparing tree age, size and dendrochronolgical characteristics among sites, the analyses were threefold: First, general genetic diversity and differentiation patterns were investigated to test following hypotheses: (Ia) Genetic diversity is reduced at the species distribution limit. (Ib) Populations are of similar historical origin which is indicated ... | www.plosone.org 2 March 2012 | Volume 7 | Issue 3 | e33636 Drought-Adaptation Potential in Fagus sylvatica site; Table 1). Genetic diversity (He) differed between sites in BAE and NEU with lower diversity at dry compared to the mesic sites (t-Test, Bonferroni corrected P-values: PBonf,0.01 and PBonf,0.001, respectively). He also differed
Rare species support vulnerable functions in high-diversity ecosystems.
... rare species. It is thus not only the quantity but also the quality of biodiversity that matters. Thus, our findings highlight that we need to change how we think about biodiversity in general, and about conservation strategies in particular, by moving beyond the protection of biodiversity per se and beyond focusing on iconic, charismatic, or phylogenetically ... the level of functional diversity within communities, which in turn sustains local ecosystem processes [21,40]. This latter argument is in agreement with a recent study showing that, using a global survey of reef fish assemblages, ecosystem functioning (as measured by standing biomass) scales in a non-saturating manner with biodiversity (measured either ... with biodiversity (measured either as species richness or functional diversity using the same fish traits as in our study) . This precautionary principle applies in highly diverse ecosystems, characterized by high functional redundancy among species [32,33], and even more so in lower diversity ecosystems where the potential for functional redundancy
Plant and fungal diversity in gut microbiota as revealed by molecular and culture investigations.
... molecular analysis of dietary diversity for three archaic Native Americans. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98: 4317–4322. 17. Stensvold CR, Lebbad M, Verweij JJ (2011) The impact of genetic diversity in protozoa on molecular diagnostics. Trends Parasitol 27: 53–58. 18. Slapeta J, Moreira D, Lopez-Garcia P (2005) The extent of protist diversity: insights from ... KH, Roh SW, Kim MS, et al. (2008) Bacterial, archaeal, and eukaryal diversity in the intestines of Korean people. J Microbiol 46: 491–501. 11. Ott SJ, Kuhbacher T, Musfeldt M, Rosenstiel P, Hellmig S, et al. (2008) Fungi and inflammatory bowel diseases: Alterations of composition and diversity. Scand J Gastroenterol 43: 831–841. 12. Chen Y, Chen Z, ... Methanobrevibacter smithii. Int J Obes Lond 36: 817– 825. 8. Rajilic-Stojanovic M, Smidt H, de Vos WM (2007) Diversity of the human gastrointestinal tract microbiota revisited. Environ Microbiol 9: 2125–2136. 9. Scanlan PD, Marchesi JR (2008) Micro-eukaryotic diversity of the human distal gut microbiota: qualitative assessment using culture-dependent and -independent
Correction: The Diversity and Geographical Structure of Orientia tsutsugamushi Strains from Scrub Typhus Patients in Laos.
... (2015) The Diversity and Geographical Structure of Orientia tsutsugamushi Strains from Scrub Typhus Patients in Laos. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 9(8): e0004024. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0004024 PMID: 26317624 a11111 OPEN ACCESS Citation: Phetsouvanh R, Sonthayanon P, Pukrittayakamee S, Paris DH, Newton PN, Feil EJ, et al. (2016) Correction: The Diversity ... CORRECTION Correction: The Diversity and Geographical Structure of Orientia tsutsugamushi Strains from Scrub Typhus Patients in Laos Rattanaphone Phetsouvanh, Piengchan Sonthayanon, Sasithon Pukrittayakamee,
Evoluţia diversităţii structurale şi compoziţionale a arboretelor cu ajutorul indicelui UMF: un studiu de caz la nivel de unitate de producţie[The evolution of stand structural and compositional diversity assessed with the UMF index: A case study at produ
... compositional diversity of a given area, using data from forest management plans. The results can be analyzed for longer periods of time and may indicate the direction of evolution of an area in relation with anthropogenic changes: from even-aged structure to uneven-aged, from monocultures to mixed stands. Keywords unevere aged, mixed forest, diversity, ... indicelui UMF: un studiu de caz la nivel de unitate de producţie M. C. Burlui, R. Cenuşă Burlui M. C., Cenuşă R., 2014. The evolution of stand structural and compositional diversity assessed with the UMF index: A case study at the production unit. Bucov. For. 14(1): 29-39, 2014. Abstract. In this article we present the UMF index (Uneven-aged, Mixed, ... How to quatify forest management intensity in Central European forests. 132: 379396. Schutz J.P., 1999. Close to nature silviculture: is this concept compatible with species diversity? . Forestry 72(4): 356-366. Skovsgaard J.P., 2000. The UMF-index: an indicator to compare silvicultural practices at the forest or estate level. Forestry 73(1): 81-85. Figura
Impact of marker ascertainment bias on genomic selection accuracy and estimates of genetic diversity.
... platform of choice for whole-genome genotyping in many species such as wheat was DArT (Diversity Array Technology) and has formed the basis of most of our knowledge about cereals genetic diversity. This study compared GBS and DArT marker platforms for measuring genetic diversity and genomic selection (GS) accuracy in elite U.S. soft winter wheat. From ... Europe, Chappes, France Abstract Genome-wide molecular markers are often being used to evaluate genetic diversity in germplasm collections and for making genomic selections in breeding programs. To accurately predict phenotypes and assay genetic diversity, molecular markers should assay a representative sample of the polymorphisms in the population ... representation library generated from samples of genomic DNA. DArT markers were used for most of the recent investigations concerning cereals genetic diversity and for initial studies on GS [15–17]. However, it is not known if diversity should be re-assessed using marker platforms subject to less ascertainment bias. In addition if reports suggest that GBS gives
Diversity among African pygmies.
... divergence. Although not directly related to skull differentiation, the diversity among pygmies would probably suggest that the process responsible for reduced stature occurred after the split of the ancestors of modern Eastern and Western pygmies. Citation: Ram´ırez Rozzi FV, Sardi ML (2010) Diversity among African Pygmies. PLoS ONE 5(10): e13620. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0013620 Editor: ... Diversity among African Pygmies Fernando V. Ramı´rez Rozzi1*, Marina L. Sardi2 1 UPR 2147 CNRS, Paris, France, 2 Divisio´ n Antropolog´ıa, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Museo, ... morphologies have been observed among pygmies . Twiesselmann , based on a comparative PLoS ONE | www.plosone.org 1 October 2010 | Volume 5 | Issue 10 | e13620 Diversity in African Pygmies craniofacial work, suggested that differences between pygmies and non-pygmies from West Africa are less important than those between Eastern and
Diversity and evolution of coral fluorescent proteins.
... parallel evolution of the color diversity in corals, provide the foundation for experimental studies of evolutionary processes that led to color diversification, and enable a comparative analysis of structural determinants of different colors. Citation: Alieva NO, Konzen KA, Field SF, Meleshkevitch EA, Hunt ME, et al. (2008) Diversity and Evolution of Coral ... Diversity and Evolution of Coral Fluorescent Proteins Naila O. Alieva1, Karen A. Konzen2, Steven F. Field1, Ella A. Meleshkevitch2, Marguerite E. Hunt1, Victor Beltran-Ramirez3, ... important questions as convergent molecular evolution and the origins of molecular complexity [5,6]. Last but not least, coral FPs are major determinants of the coral reef color diversity [7,8,9,10], accounting for practically every visible coral color other than the brown of the photosynthetic pigments of algal symbionts (possible exception is the non-fluorescent
Geographic patterns of vertebrate diversity and identification of relevant areas for conservation in Europe
... vertebrate diversity and identification of relevant areas for conservation in Europe. Animal Biodiversity and Conservation, 35.1: 1–11. Abstract Geographic patterns of vertebrate diversity and identification of relevant areas for conservation in Europe.— The 'EU Council conclusions on biodiversity post–2010' re–enforced Europe’s commitment to halt biodiversity ... identifying areas of high–value diversity We followed Rey Benayas & de la Montaña (2003) to identify areas of high–value diversity of the various taxonomic groups. The following biodiversity criteria were assessed in all cells: a) species richness, b) rarity, c) vulnerability, and d) a combined index of biodiversity that integrates the ... 18.0246 Combined biodiversity index N–Reptiles O–Birds 0.0001 4.0879 47.2240 0.0122 7.1879 28.1212 P–Mammals 0.0054 2.1712 9.0097 Animal Biodiversity and Conservation 35.1 (2012) 5 Relationships among biodiversity criteria Correlation analyses between species richness, rarity, vulnerability, and the combined biodiversity index
Correction: Genomic and Genetic Diversity within the Pseudomonas fluorescens Complex.
... CORRECTION Correction: Genomic and Genetic Diversity within the Pseudomonas fluorescens Complex Daniel Garrido-Sanz, Jan P. Meier-Kolthoff, Markus Göker, Marta Martín, Rafael Rivilla, Miguel Redondo-Nieto There are errors ... and 2 and S1 Fig here. a11111 OPEN ACCESS Citation: Garrido-Sanz D, Meier-Kolthoff JP, Göker M, Martín M, Rivilla R, Redondo-Nieto M (2016) Correction: Genomic and Genetic Diversity within the Pseudomonas fluorescens Complex. PLoS ONE 11(4): e0153733. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0153733 Published: April 11, 2016 Copyright: © 2016 Garrido-Sanz et al. ... replicates are shown. Bold and T indicates type strain. (PDF) Reference 1. Garrido-Sanz D, Meier-Kolthoff JP, Göker M, Martín M, Rivilla R, Redondo-Nieto M (2016) Genomic and Genetic Diversity within the Pseudomonas fluorescens Complex. PLoS ONE 11(2): e0150183. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0150183 PMID: 26915094 PLOS ONE | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0153733
A diversity-based approach to the spatial development of socio-ecological systems
... rangeland sustainability, grassland ecosystems, institutional diversity, linguistic diversity, bio-cultural diversity, rural communities, traditional ecological knowledge or, in a broader context, diversity (specific to humankind or natural systems) and sustainability, scientists agree that diversity and its conservation are crucial to sustainability (Altieri, ... Some authors classify biodiversity as compositional, structural and functional (Kaennel, 1998), others consider functional and response diversity (Elmqvist et al., 2003). differences result into a different value granted to biodiversity (Camino et al., 2016). However, human diversity is not determined geographically or spatially (Barbič, 1998). Diversity is a ... relationship between socio-economic development and diversity (of the natural systems, of socio-economic systems, and overall)? 3. What are the particular concepts related to spatial development which translate the sustainability principles and how do they relate to diversity? 2.2. Diversity In very general terms, diversity refers to dissimilarities between