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Description and implementation of a MiXed Layer model (MXL, v1.0) for the dynamics of the atmospheric boundary layer in the Modular Earth Submodel System (MESSy)

... yields a computationally inexpensive tool that is ideally suited for the analysis of field data, for evaluating new parametrizations for 3-D models, and for performing systematic sensitivity analyses. A case study for the DOMINO campaign in southern Spain is shown to demonstrate the use and performance of MXL/MESSy in reproducing and analysing field observations. 1 Introduction In ... accounting for boundary layer growth and ABL-FT exchange. As for scalars, the inclusion of reactive species requires the introduction of two additional equations for each species. The expression for the evolution of the generic species C is similar to that for potential temperature (Eq. 1) and moisture (Eq. 7), but includes a term for the chemical transformation (Vilà-Guerau ... important for calculating surface–atmosphere exchange, and appears for instance in the calculations of the aerodynamic resistance which governs evapotranspiration (Sect. 2.7.2) and dry deposition. Similar expressions as for hθ i and hqi can be used for the two horizontal components of the wind speed. These equations also contain the Coriolis force that
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Downregulation of blood-brain barrier phenotype by proinflammatory cytokines involves NADPH oxidase-dependent ROS generation: consequences for interendothelial adherens and tight junctions.

... dose-dependent increase in protein expression for both gp91 (up to 2.1-fold for both cytokines at 100 ng/ml) and p47 (up to 3.5-fold and 3.0-fold at 100 ng/ml of TNF-a and IL-6, respectively) (Figure 6A). In further experiments, cells were treated with 100 ng/ml of either TNF-a or IL-6 for 18 hrs before being harvested for analysis of gp91/p47 co-association ... 5% CO2/95% air at 37uC. For experimental purposes, cells were routinely subjected to treatment with either TNF-a or IL-6 at 0–100 ng/ml (0–24 hrs), concentration ranges routinely used in other papers [10,19]. Postcytokine treatment, cells were harvested for analysis. For cell lysate preparation, cells were washed thrice in PBS before being scraped into ... agents. Confluent HBMvECs were pre-treated with either SOD, CAT, NAC or APO before being treated with 100 ng/ml of either TNFa or IL-6 for up to 18 hrs, after which cells were harvested and monitored for ROS production by flow cytometry (necessitating cell pre-labelling with ROS-sensitive CFDA) or for protein expression analysis by Western blotting. Pre-treatment
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Relationship between Interleukin-6 gene polymorphism and hippocampal volume in antipsychotic-naive schizophrenia: evidence for differential susceptibility?

... used. Spatial normalization was performed with high-dimensional Diffeomorphic Anatomical Registration using the Exponentiated Lie algebra (DARTEL) template [40]. Grey matter segments were modulated by the Jacobian determinants of the deformations to account for local expansion and compression introduced by non-linear transformation. Finally, the gray matter ... the mixture at 56 C for 10 min. Later, digested samples were treated with ethanol and then, subjected to spin column for isolation of genomic DNA. The columns were washed twice and then DNA is eluted in elution buffer. Extracted DNA was checked on agarose gel and stored at -80 C for later use. The PCR amplification of the IL-6 promoter was performed with published ... movements as assessed by Abnormal Involuntary Movements Scale. Clinical assessments and blood sample collection were performed on the same day before starting antipsychotics. After complete description of study to the subjects, written informed consent was obtained. The research protocol was reviewed and approved by the National Institute of Mental Health
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Social Network for Scientists with a Focus on ResearchGate

... Elsevier se oslanja na svoju bazu Scopus. Znanstvenici mogu dodavati podatke i oblikovati svoj profil. Institucije zastupljene na ovoj platformi mogu se izravno povezati u društvenu mreÞu Vivo. Ovo je komercijalna platforma koja ima besplatno dostupan dio Biomedexperts * Sofija Konjeviæ, e-pošta: sofija@irb.hr (www.biomedexperts.com), koji povezuje ... laboratorija, omoguæuje razmjenu ideja, poruka, slika, protokola putem profila, foruma, bloga. Sci-mate (www.sci-mate.org/index.php) – Scientific Material Transfer Environment – namijenjen razmjeni ideja, radova i drugih zanimljivih “artikala”. U sebi ujedinjuje elemente wikija, e-baya, foruma i društvene mreÞe. Ovo su samo neke od mreÞa namijenjenih znanstvenicima, ... 3. 2013.). 2. Connect portal. URL: http://portal.connect.znanost.org (21. 3. 2013.). 3. M. J. Coren, A New Social Network For Science Could Change How We Make Discoveries. URL: http://www.fastcoexist.com/1679977/a-new-social-network -for- science-cou ld-change-how-we-make-discoveries (20. 3. 2013.). 4. S. Gajiæ, J. Stankoviæ, D. Laliæ, B. Miliæ, Uloga društvenih
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Robust network topologies for generating switch-like cellular responses.

... for studying how switching can arise in natural systems and as a design tool for engineering switch-like behavior in synthetic circuits. Author Summary Biomolecular signaling networks enable cells to mediate responses to extracellular and intracellular stimuli and are hence crucial for the functioning of all organisms. Such networks do not merely forward ... A acts as an enzyme activator for C, and B is effectively a background inactivator for both A and C (since there are no incoming links for B). When the total concentration (inactive and active) of C is much greater than those of active A (k1 zk2 ) , see and B, and the effective Michaelis constant (K~ k0 Methods) values for activation and inactivation ... were constructed and simulated; response profiles were used to compute robustness scores for ultrasensitivity and bistability for each network topology. This process was repeated for each compositional class. Histograms depict the distribution of robustness scores for ultrasensitivity and bistability greater than 1% across all compositional classes; white
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Parallel Implementation of Bias Field Correction Fuzzy C-Means Algorithm for Image Segmentation

... neighbors effect as mentioned in [28] for low-SNR images). To evaluate our implementation, we compared its performance to a sequential equivalent. For this purpose, runtime for serial execution was measured on the host processor that was obtained from single-core execution and referenced (TABLE.I). The GPU based computing duration for the same experiment parameters ... the maximum speed-up is achieved for the GTX 580 that is almost 5x faster than GT 740M and 2.5x faster than GTX 760. The speed-ups reached for this figure are 52x, 20x and 13x for GTX 580, GTX 760 and GT 740 respectively for image size up to about to 7 Mega pixels. According to our study, it seems clear that the performance speed-up depends on the strength ... we conducted is clearly manifested for large image sizes. This is validated experimentally for different tests and different GPU cards. This study shows another aspect on performance analysis in terms of data storage effect on the performance of each card (data exchange inside memory card). Another aspect of GPU performance can be sorted out by inspecting
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Hematoma shape, hematoma size, Glasgow coma scale score and ICH score: which predicts the 30-day mortality better for intracerebral hematoma?

... with written informed consent waived, recruited 106 patients diagnosed as ICH by non-enhanced computed tomography study. The hemorrhagic shape, hematoma size measured by computer-assisted volumetric analysis (CAVA) and estimated by ABC/2 formula, ICH score and GCS score was examined. The predicting performance of 30-day mortality of the aforementioned ... Feldmann E, et al. (1999) Guidelines for the management of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage: A statement for healthcare professionals from a special writing group of the Stroke Council, American Heart Association. Stroke; a journal of cerebral circulation 30: 905–915. 22. Zurasky JA, Aiyagari V, Zazulia AR, Shackelford A, Diringer MN (2005) Early mortality ... (P,0.032), GCS score (P,0.001), and ICH score (P,0.001). Location of hematomas The 30-day mortality was 23.1% (3 of 13) for infratentorial hematomas and was 14.0% (13 of 93) for supratentorial hematomas. The difference between the aforementioned locations, however, was not statistically significant (P = 0.391). Patients with pontine hematomas had a
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Benefits of Either Operative or Non-Operative Treatment for Perilunate Dislocation and Fracture Dislocations

... intervention. Since the outcomes of non-operative care were comparable to the operative outcomes, weighing the benefits of non surgical management may be an area of further investigation.The authors didn’t describe the operative intervention in detail making comparisons with outer studies difficult. Therefore, we note the LETTER TO THE EDITOR need ... fixation.Mil Med. 2011;176(9):107782. 6. Kremer T, Wendt M, Riedel K, Sauerbier M, Germann G, Bickert B. Open reduction for perilunate injuries-clinical outcome and patient satisfaction. J Hand Surg Am. 2010;35(10):1599-606. 7. Forli A, Courvoisier A, Wimsey S, Corcella D, Moutet F. Perilunate dislocations and transscaphoid peri- lunate fracture-dislocations: ... (5) 2011 Croatia Op. PLFD 43 29 m 87 Kremer et al (6) 2010 Germany Op. Op. PLD PLFD 9 30 66 m 70 20 77° 70% Op. PLD 11 13 y 77 13 Forli et al (7) 2010 France Op. PLFD 7 13 y 74 35 8 94° 4  98° 87% 87% Lutz et al (8) Op. PLD 15 2009 Austeria Op. PLFD 10 5y 5y 81.5 20.7 82.7
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One-Class FMRI-Inspired EEG Model for Self-Regulation Training.

... work, different models were constructed for different subjects. In this work, we carefully analyzed the inhomogeneity among subjects and were able to construct a single model for the majority of the subjects. We introduce a method for inhomogeneity assessment. This enables us to demonstrate a choice of subjects for which a single model could be derived. ... (e.g. feed-forward neural network [34]). The transformation steps before applying the metric are shown in Fig 1. These include: converting their frequency bands on the y-axis to a single frequency band division by expanding their y-axes to a minimum resolution of 1Hz and collapsing this back to a uniform frequency band division. The uniform frequency ... (fatigue, motivation), particularly in task-oriented experiments. Therefore, this adaptation cannot be automatically performed. Fig 5a depicts the performance of the individual model constructed for the first session when testing on the second session. The figure focuses on subjects for whom their first session was included in the common model construction
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Discrete Cosine Transform-II for Reduction in Peak to Average Power Ratio of OFDM Signals Through μ-Law Companding Technique

... amount ofcompression. 4. DISCRETE COSINE TRANSFORM-II The discrete cosine transforms (DCT) is a Fourier-related transform similar to the discrete Fourier transform (DFT). It is a member of a family of sinusoidal unitary transforms. This transform is real, orthogonal and separable with fast algorithms for its computation. They have abetter job ... forward combination of two existing techniques namely -Law Companding Transform and Discrete Cosine Transform-II precoding technique. The simulation results show that, the proposed combinedscheme gives better result for PAPR Reduction and results in no distortion. Keywords FDM, FDM, PAPR, FFT, IEEE, DCT, CCDF 1. INTRODUCTION As the demand for ... DCT-II precoded signal. 7. CONCLUSIONS In this paper, a new idea about the performance of the µ-Law companding technique combined with precoded technique is presented for the reduction of PAPR value. The PAPR value can be reduced for different modulation formats and for different values of M by using proposed 154 International Journal of Wireless
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The effects of backward adjustable thoracic support in wheelchair on spinal curvature and back muscle activation for elderly people.

... systems for consumers, clinicians, and manufacturers. Further research is necessary to discover the optimal backward degree for BTS and the optimal period for regulating the backward and forward alternation of the BTS during prolonged sitting. Acknowledgments The authors are very grateful to Cho-Lin Wang, Chih-Hsien Chen, and Ting-Wei Huang for technical ... that reclined backrest, forward tilted seat, and lumbar support can help reduce lumbar load [13, 14]. However, a reclined backrest may disrupt the functional sitting posture and may cause the user to slide forward, thus generating an undesirable sitting posture [15, 16]. Using a forward tilted seat risks causing the user to slide forward when moving the ... pelvic angle were observed. The BTS posture appeared to yield significantly higher values for pelvic angle (P,0.001) and lower values for lumbar angle (P50.014) when compared with the LSS posture. No significant differences in thoracic angle were observed, except for the NS versus the BTS, The latter posture appeared to yield significantly higher values
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A mechanism for chronic filarial hydrocele with implications for its surgical repair.

... signed the inform consent form. For each individual, information regarding the hydrocelectomy technique used was retrospectively gathered from the patient’s medical records. All included, consenting individuals underwent physical and ultrasound examinations of the scrotal area. Group-2 (G2) Patients from CG who underwent hydrocelectomy at NEPAF for hydrocele ... been performed in any family member. The family member(s) identified for previous hydrocelectomy was/were invited to NEPAF and selected according the following inclusion criteria: (1) if they lived in a house where at least one person had been positive for Wuchereria bancrofti microfilaria in the blood, (2) if they had had hydrocelectomy performed between ... NEPAF. Patients were selected using the following criteria: (a) aged between 18 and 40 year-old at the time of surgery and had signed the inform consent forms, which included permission to use his medical information for scientific publication; (b) documented uni- or bilateral hydrocele by physical examination (inspection and bimanual palpation) and ultrasonography
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Europium nanoparticle-based high performing immunoassay for the screening of treponemal antibodies.

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A tool for assessing the usefulness of prevalence studies done for surveillance purposes: the example of hypertension

... D, should be answered affirmatively in order for the paper to reach the minimum quality threshold. Some of the remaining 15 questions allow for three possible answers: YES, which indicates that the task was satisfactorily performed; NO, which indicates that the task was not performed, was not communicated, or was not performed satisfactorily; or PART, which ... by correcting estimates for which not all subjects had the same chance of being in the sample, as tends to be the case when a more or less uniform sample size is used despite the fact that the age pyramid is not uniform for all ages. Attributing the unweighted sample prevalence to the entire population is an error in such cases. For example, let’s suppose ... equally involving formal sampling formulas and common sense. What is not permissible is a failure to specifically comment on the particular population to which results can be extrapolated. 11. Are any qualitative judgments made that can serve as the basis for action? Genuine descriptive research is typically an effort to assess reality, particularly when performed
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HIV/STD transmission in gold-mining areas of Bolivar State, Venezuela: interventions for diagnosis, treatment, and prevention

... the categories of participants. Sera were screened for antibodies against HIV and HTLV I/II by enzyme immunoassay (EIA), and double reactive specimens were confirmed by Western blot for HIV and both Western blot and immunofluorescence for HTLV I/II. For syphilis a specific hemagglutination method was used, and for HBV a high-sensitivity MicroELISA test was ... infection from mosquito bites. Because the minimal body care shown by women in the area may indicate low selfesteem—which would make it harder for them to assert themselves and insist on safe-sex practices— participating women were also given body care products as a step toward boosting their self-respect. The logistics for the prevalence study were challenging. ... Venezuelan blood supply is not checked for either HTLV I or II. Contrasida also suggested she not breast-feed her children and that she use condoms. It should be noted that 3 out of the 7 individuals infected with HTLV I were also positive for syphilis (two women, both sex workers) and hepatitis B (one woman, a health care professional) (17). vaginal smears
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International guiding principles for biomedical research involving animals

... animals and should be available for inspection. Information should be included regarding the various procedures which were carried out and the results of postmortem examination if conducted. 3. Monitoring of the Care and Use of Animals for Experimentation 3.1. Wherever animals are used for biomedical purposes, their care and use should be subject to ... and personnel have appropriate qualifications or experience for conducting procedures on animals. Adequate opportunities shall be provided for in-service training, including the proper and humane concern for the animals under their care. 2. Special Provisions Where they are quantifiable, norms for the following provisions should be established by a national ... prelude to experimental trials on human beings of, for example, new therapeutic, prophylactic, or diagnostic substances, devices, or procedures. There are two international ethical codes intended principally for the guidance of countries or institutions that have not yet formulated their own ethical requirements for human experimentation: the Tokyo revision of
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The moral meaning of religion for bioethics

... death could be put into context and more readily approached from the direction of already-formed convictions about respect for the individual’s integrity and his or her body, care and treatment for the dying, a demand for equity in the provision of health care, and a concern for including the socially voiceless and vulnerable within the boundaries of the moral community. This ... treatment conforms to this principle because it typically benefits a patient. The principle of justice obligates one to ensure that the benefits of health care (or in some cases the burdens, such as taxes for hospitals) are distributed fairly and equitably. For example, the benefits of experimental research on human beings can be inestimable for many people, ... and equality must be in the forefront of our moral universe. Moreover, these traditions understand all human beings to be created in the irnage of God (imago Dei); and this imago Dei concept not only reinforces a sense of commonality and equality but also respect for individual autonomy. Thus, moral norms with profound meaning for religious traditions
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CD29.R12: Topic for the technical discussions to be held in 1986

... COMMITTEE Washington D.C., 26 September – 3 October 1983 RESOLUTION CD29.R12 TOPIC FOR THE TECHNICAL DISCUSSIONS TO BE HELD IN 1986 THE 29th DIRECTING COUNCIL, Mindful that the 90th Meeting of the Executive Committee recommended "Workers' Health"1 as the topic for the Technical Discussions in 1985: Having decided (Resolution VI) that Technical Discussions ... Discussions are to be held only in even years; and Desirous that Technical Discussions be held on so important a subject, RESOLVES To declare "Workers' Health" selected as the topic for the Technical Discussions to be held in 1986 during the XXII Pan American Sanitary Conference. Sept.–Oct. 1983 OD 192, 57
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Primary health care: worldwide interest... and a U.S. perspective

... Another important point to recognize is the need for a change of attitude among health care professionals, allied health care personnel, and patients. Specifically, health care personnel need to share more information with their patients, and the patients need to assume more responsibility for their own health care; what is desired, in essence, is a partnership between providers and ... thingsdissemination of new information about diseases and disease prevention, altering the structure of health care, and changing the attitudes of health care personnel and patients-fall mainly within the purview of the primary care system and primary health care providers. Let us now briefly examine the allocation of central government funds for health care, focusing ... resources allocated for primary care services are usually inadequate relative to the vast existing demand for services at the primary level. Also, the services provided are usually extremely fragmented and difficult to coordinate; and in terms of the demands for available services at each level of care, the demand for the vast range of primary care services
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CD25.R3: Request of the Government of Grenada for membership in the PAHO

... THE REGIONAL COMMITTEE Washington D.C., 27 September – 6 October 1977 RESOLUTION CD25.R3 REQUEST OF THE GOVERNMENT OF GRENADA FOR MEMBERSHIP IN THE PAHO THE 25th DIRECTING COUNCIL, Having examined the formal request for membership in the Pan American Health Organization made on behalf of the Government of Grenada by the Ministry of External Affairs ... to contribute by means of a quota assessment to the financial support of the Organization, RESOLVES 1. To approve with satisfaction the request by the Government of Grenada for membership in the Pan American Health Organization. 2. To instruct the Director to transmit this decision to the Member Governments of the Organization. Sept.–Oct. 1977 OD
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Diabetes mellitus: a challenge for the countries of the region

... over the next 10 to 15 years. Programs for the control of diabetes mellitus should include educational campaigns for patients, the public, and health professionals; early detection of the disease in high-risk groups; reglstration and followup of cases and the organization of systems for providing comprehensive care. Promotion of basic, clinical, and ... groups. l Organize programs of comprehensive care for the diabetic patient, in accord with the existing health systems in each of the countries. These programs should be designed to increase coverage through the decentralization of patients from specialized PAHO BULLETIN 322 centers to the community care level. This is the only way of ensuring the ... promote the preparation courses for non-specialist of specialists, physicians on the care of diabetic patients, and training of ancillary medical personnel in the field of diabetes mellitus and chronic diseases in general. l Identify and strengthen approved centers in the Region with a view to research, teaching, and specialized care in regard to the disease. l Promote
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Request of the Government of the Commonwealth of the Bahamas for membership in the PAHO

... AMERICANHEALTH CSP19/13 (Eng.) 30 July 1974 ORIGINAL: ENGLISH OF THE COMMONWEALTH ORGANIZATION OF THE BAHAMAS FOR MEMBERSHIP The Director of the Pan American Sanitary Bureau is pleased to inform the Conference that he has received a request from the Government of the Commonwealth of The Bahamas for membership in the Pan American Health Organization. The Director brought this ... EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE, Having examined the formal request for membership in the Pan American Health Organization made by the Minister of External Affairs of the Commonwealth of The Bahamas on behalf of his Government, in a letter dated 26 February 1974, RESOLVES: i. To take note of the request of the Commonwealth of The Bahamas for membership in Organization, and ... examined the formal request for membership in the Pan American Health Organization made by the Minister of External Affairs of the Commonwealth of The Bahamas on behalf of his Government, in a letter dated 26 February 1974, (Eng. CE72/12 Page 2 RESOLVES : i. To take note of the request of the Government of the Commonwealth of The Bahamas for membership in
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Proposed program and budget estimates of the WHO for the region of the Americas for 1978-79

... 1974 ORIGINAL: ENGLISH PROPOSED PROGRAM AND BUDGET ESTIMATES OF THE WORLD THE REGION OF THE AMERICAS FOR 1978-79 HEALTH ORGANIZATION FOR The Director-General of the World Health Organization has requested that the Regional Committee for the Americas recommend a tentative program projection in global terms for 1978 and 1979, within a planning ceiling of US$12,744,000 and $13,445,000, respectively. The ... Health Organization for the Region of the Americas for 1976 and 1977; and needs Recognizing the advisability into future years, of projecting probable program RESOLVES: To recommend to the Director General that he include in the Program and Budget Estimates of the World Health Organization for 1978 and 1979 the proposed program for the Region of ... been made taking into account trends in programs and priorities for such additional resources as may become available in this Region. The Regional Committee may wish to recommend this distribution to the Director-General of the World Health Organization for inclusion in the WHO program for 1978-79 by adopting a resolution along the following lines: THE
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Report on buildings and installations for headquarters

... was -seen with the completion of the framework for the second level and the laying of the concrete slab. This holds all the conduits for :the simultaneous interpretation. equipment and the necessary.' steel plates .for the placement of the conference tables and :chairs for the three conference chambers. Framing for the third floor is progressing and it is ... foundation work has been completed, including the placement of 112 caissons of reinforced concrete placed on bedrock, at an average depth of 52 feet below the sub-basement. The concrete for the sub-basement and basement has been poured and forms have been set for pouring concrete for the street level slabs. The work by plumbers, steamfitters, and electricians has ... was given to the members for their information and study and it was agreed that the Subcommittee would be convened at 10:00 a.m.,Thursday, 17 September 1964 for further discussion and decision on the sale. Upon the Chairman's request for additional business the Director addressed the Committee and spoke on the matter of gifts for the new building from
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Closing the ranks for health for all

... to build up permanent health infrastructure based on primary health care, in order to attain health for all. For my part, desiring to compensate for the difficult regular budget situation, I have stretched my moral conscience to the limit in attempts to secure extrabudgetary funds for that purpose. I now appeal to you to stretch your imagination to ... continent. I am referring not only to what you receive, whether as concepts that have given rise to the new health paradigm for attaining health for all by the year 2000, or in very practical terms through international support, for example for such initiatives as Carribean Cooperation in Health. I am also referring to what you give to others in other parts ... if we are to reach our goal of health for all by the year 2000 and keep it up afterwards. So even if others may have lost faith in us, we must preserve our faith by demonstrating that it is well founded, by always keeping in front of us our health value system, by persevering in our policy and strategy for health for all, and by using collective resources
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