Can resistant coral-Symbiodinium associations enable coral communities to survive climate change? A study of a site exposed to long-term hot water input
... in coral communities are likely to occur under the impact of climate change. Subjects Ecology, Environmental Sciences, Marine Biology Keywords Climate change, Coral reefs, Acclimatization, Nuclear power plant, Symbiodinium type D1a OPEN ACCESS How to cite this article Keshavmurthy et al. (2014), Can resistant coral-Symbiodinium associations enable coral communities ... Can resistant coral-Symbiodinium associations enable coral communities to survive climate change? A study of a site exposed to long-term hot water input Shashank Keshavmurthy1 , Pei-Jie Meng2,3 , Jih-Terng Wang4 , Chao-Yang Kuo1,5 , Sung-Yin ... to their upper thermal limit (Fitt et al., 2001; Riegl et al., 2011). If environmental perturbations exceed the adaptive capacity of corals, it may result in a change in their communities over time such that species that are phenotypically plastic or can adapt genetically through time will become dominant. In a disturbed environment where organisms under
Exploring the response of West Siberian wetland methane emissions to future changes in climate, vegetation, and soil microbial communities
... emissions and other fluxes for the period 2071–2100, relative to the period 1981– 2010. We also explored possible responses of soil microbial communities to these changes. Our results suggest that, if soil microbial communities acclimatize to elevated temperatures without changes in species abundances, end-of-century CH4 emissions from the WSL will only ... significant difference between the responses of soil microbial communities to temperature (Q10 parameter values) of sphagnum-dominated wetlands and sedge-dominated wetlands (Lupascu et al., 2012). Taken together, these findings suggest that, as vegetation patterns shift, species abundances in microbial communities might shift with them (albeit not all at the ... might have played a role, these results imply substantially different responses to climate change between the two subregions’ plant and microbial communities. Thus, in the WSL, a northward shift in vegetation and microbial communities might bring with it Full Screen / Esc Printer-friendly Version Interactive Discussion 25 | Our study builds on the historical
Oil exploitation and human rights violations in Nigeria’s oil producing communities
... terms of protecting the human rights of the oil-producing communities of Nigeria. For example, the Land Use Act (LUA) of 1978 changed the structure of land ownership that had hitherto been vested in family/community network in the southern parts of the country, including the Niger Delta region. Oil -communities consider the impacts of the LUA which divested ... restrictions are imposed by security agents mostly with the complicit support of oil MNCs. The return of Nigeria to democratic rule in 1999 raised the expectations of the oil-producing communities that an 1 [ 160 ] This is the report of PhD research carried out at Ghent University, under the supervision of Luc Lavrysen. afrika focus — Volume 25, Nr. 2 Reports ... environmental cost of oil pollution, this PhD project critically examines human rights violations and environmental damage resulting from oil exploitation in the oil-producing communities of Nigeria, and the role and responsibilities of the major oil MNCs. The work also encompasses existing human rights instruments, the legal framework for oil operations
What Online User Innovation Communities Can Teach Us about Capturing the Experiences of Patients Living with Chronic Health Conditions. A Scoping Review.
... independent online communities. Firm-hosted communities are those communities initiated, maintained, and governed by commercial producers. The second type, firm-related communities, despite being associated with a brand or product, are initiated and governed by community members in a self-organized process. Contrary to the first two types, independent communities ... Innovation Communities Findings from the studies reviewed in this last section showed that online communities can in fact be an appropriate tool to help firms generate, identify, and collect end user ideas, when used appropriately. Authors also illustrated different approaches for identifying and selecting promising ideas generated by online communities. ... process. Health-related online communities have in fact become a main platform for patients to exchange and discuss their health related experiences . However, and despite their increasing popularity, the innovative PLOS ONE | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0156175 June 7, 2016 2 / 26 Healthcare Learning from Online User Innovation Communities potential
The Mpumalanga Men's Study (MPMS): results of a baseline biological and behavioral HIV surveillance survey in two MSM communities in South Africa.
... population. We observed high HIV prevalence in these communities, low uptake of regular HIV testing, and consequently a high burden of undiagnosed HIV infection. If unaddressed, this high burden of undiagnosed HIV infection will lead to increased morbidity and mortality and continued transmission of HIV within these communities of MSM. That we observed a third ... Lane T, Osmand T, Marr A, Shade SB, Dunkle K, et al. (2014) The Mpumalanga Men’s Study (MPMS): Results of a Baseline Biological and Behavioral HIV Surveillance Survey in Two MSM Communities in South Africa. PLoS ONE 9(11): e111063. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0111063 Editor: Susan Marie Graham, University of Washington, United States of America Received June ... will initiate targeted recruitment of those participants not recaptured through RDS. In this paper, we describe the results of the MPMS baseline assessment survey of the two MSM communities. We report findings on HIV prevalence, associated risk behaviors, and healthseeking behaviors as they relate to the Boithato efficacy assessment’s primary endpoints:
Influence of salinity on bacterioplankton communities from the Brazilian rain forest to the coastal Atlantic Ocean.
... bacteria are recognized as important drivers of biogeochemical processes in all aquatic ecosystems, however, the taxa that make up these communities are poorly known. The aim of this study was to investigate bacterial communities in aquatic ecosystems at Ilha Grande, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, a preserved insular environment of the Atlantic rain forest and ... Furthermore, this paper reveals for the first time the pristine bacterioplankton communities in a tropical island at the South Atlantic Ocean. Citation: Silveira CB, Vieira RP, Cardoso AM, Paranhos R, Albano RM, et al. (2011) Influence of Salinity on Bacterioplankton Communities from the Brazilian Rain Forest to the Coastal Atlantic Ocean. PLoS ONE ... shared between fresh and marine water samples at species level (97%) indicating that the bacterial communities are completely different in these two kinds of environment. Bacterial Groups In order to reveal bacterial phyla composition in such diverse communities, sequences from each library were classified with the RPD classifier tool (http://rdp.cme.msu.edu/classifier).
Democratic Public Discourse in the Coming Autarchic Communities
... government/ state command reward vs. punishment justice / equity Economic communities market money profit vs. loss efficiency / productivity Affinity communities tradition gift integration vs. isolation charity / solidarity 1. Types of human communities Political communities are delimited by the state by means of commands, i.e., through ... order), as well as affinity communities (as institutions associated with narrow order) can be strongholds of the autarchic communities, made up of people 404 Gheorghe-Ilie Farte / Democratic public discourse in the coming autarchic communities who practice self-control and observe the non-aggression principle. Autarchic communities must not be associated ... aggression, practice self-control, seek a dynamical efficiency and establish (together with their fellow human beings) a democratic public discourse. Political communities, economic communities, affinity communities The term “community” is associated with so many and so diverse adjectival phrases − black, Baptist, atheist, Romanian, Kiev Jewish, international,
Abundance, composition and activity of ammonia oxidizer and denitrifier communities in metal polluted rice paddies from South China.
... denitrifying communities Profiles of the ammonia oxidizing and denitrifying communities were generated by PCR-DGGE using the primer sets amoA-1FGC and amoA-2R, which had been considered specific for the AOB , Arch-amoAF-GC and Arch-amoAR which could be specific for AOA  and the nirK876-GC and nirK1040 set for the denitrifying bacterial communities ... exert different effects on the changes in the microbial communities and their biological functions on mediating N transformations in polluted rice fields. Here we hypothesize that heavy metal contamination could have impact in the abundance, composition and activity of nitrifying and denitrifying communities, which could differ in soils with different ... community and activity changes. This study suggested that metal pollution could exert impacts on soil microbial communities responsible for N transformation and thus on potential N2O production in rice paddies though the impacts on different communities could vary with metal composition and the associated changes in soil pH and N availability. However,
Creative Network Communities in the Translocal Space of Digital Networks
... Wellman and his associates argued that it is not useful today to think about communities as group-like neighborhoods and that the network understanding of communities in modern times has become much more relevant (Wellman et al., 2002). I also do not use the commonly used term online communities (Hampton & Wellman, 2002, 2003) in the cases of these early ... distinction can be applied to network communities: Creative network communities may feature rational relationships (i.e., their common goal typically is rationally motivated, e.g., to foster collaboration between Eastern and Western European media artists, as was the case of the Syndicate network), whereas today’s social network communities can be associated ... in Kluitenberg, 2008, p. 307) distinguished two types of virtual communities in regard to their geographical placement. Translocal communities form themselves around a shared interest, subject, or theme; they are completely decentralized and spread out around the world. Given that these communities most often are “debating societies” and use the simplest
Utility of repeated praziquantel dosing in the treatment of schistosomiasis in high-risk communities in Africa: a systematic review.
... effective coverage, significant additional benefits are expected to accrue in the targeted communities. Citation: King CH, Olbrych SK, Soon M, Singer ME, Carter J, et al. (2011) Utility of Repeated Praziquantel Dosing in the Treatment of Schistosomiasis in High-Risk Communities in Africa: A Systematic Review. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 5(9): e1321. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0001321 Editor: ... Georgia, Athens, Georgia, United States of America Abstract Background: Controversy persists about the optimal approach to drug-based control of schistosomiasis in high-risk communities. In a systematic review of published studies, we examined evidence for incremental benefits from repeated praziquantel dosing, given 2 to 8 weeks after an initial dose, ... Utility of Repeated Praziquantel Dosing in the Treatment of Schistosomiasis in High-Risk Communities in Africa: A Systematic Review Charles H. King1,2,3*, Stephanie K. Olbrych2, Margaret Soon2, Mendel E. Singer2, Jen Carter4,5, Daniel G. Colley3,4,5 1 Center for
Sulfur metabolizing microbes dominate microbial communities in Andesite-hosted shallow-sea hydrothermal systems.
... examined the bacterial and archaeal communities of four samples collected from the water column extending over a redoxocline gradient of a yellow and four from a white hydrothermal vent. Ribosomal tag pyrosequencing based on DNA and RNA showed statistically significant differences between the bacterial and archaeal communities of the different hydrothermal ... Epsilonproteobacteria were the most abundant groups. The Gammaproteobacteria dominated the communities from the yellow hydrothermal vent and the surface of the white vent (DNA-based libraries: 46–94%; RNA-based libraries: 91–98%), while the Epsilonproteobacteria dominated the other three communities from the white vent (DNA-based libraries: 87–91%; RNA-based libraries: ... white and yellow hydrothermal vents, respectively (Fig. 6A). In the RNA-based libraries, Marine Group II dominated the communities from the yellow vent and the surface of the white vent (89– 97% of total tags), while the other three communities from the white vent were co-dominated by Marine Group II (47–65%) and Thermococcus (25–49%) (Fig. 6B). Marine
Humans as long-distance dispersers of rural plant communities.
... meadow resulted in more dispersal, both in terms of species and representation of the source communities. Average potential dispersal distances were measured at 13 km. We consider humans capable seed dispersers, transporting a significant proportion of the plant communities in which they are active, just like more traditional vectors such as livestock. ... This has led to a further isolation of dispersal limited plant communities at risk of local extinction [24,25]. The mechanisation of agriculture has also contributed to net rural- PLOS ONE | www.plosone.org 1 May 2013 | Volume 8 | Issue 5 | e62763 Human-Mediated Dispersal of Plant Communities urban migration, and a fall in the number of humans ... reflect plant communities, and which traits select for human-mediated dispersal. Potential dispersal distances are measured, and comparing dispersed species with threatened, protected and invasive species, we discuss the role of this type of human-mediated dispersal in the rural landscape. Materials and Methods Site Selection and Source Communities
Knowledge, attitude and practice regarding dengue fever among the healthy population of highland and lowland communities in central Nepal.
... Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Regarding Dengue Fever among the Healthy Population of Highland and Lowland Communities in Central Nepal Meghnath Dhimal1,2,3*, Krishna Kumar Aryal1, Mandira Lamichhane Dhimal2,4, Ishan Gautam5, Shanker Pratap Singh1, Chop Lal Bhusal1¤a , Ulrich Kuch2¤b 1 ... characteristics of the participants and their knowledge, attitude and practice regarding DF using a structured questionnaire. We then statistically compared highland and lowland communities to identify possible causes of observed differences. Principal Findings: Out of 589 individuals interviewed, 77% had heard of DF. Only 12% of the sample had good knowledge ... country. Citation: Dhimal M, Aryal KK, Dhimal ML, Gautam I, Singh SP, et al. (2014) Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Regarding Dengue Fever among the Healthy Population of Highland and Lowland Communities in Central Nepal. PLoS ONE 9(7): e102028. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0102028 Editor: Eric S. Halsey, CDC, United States of America Received December 4, 2013; Accepted
Biogeographical boundaries, functional group structure and diversity of Rocky Shore communities along the Argentinean coast.
... group (ephemeral algae) and communities across mid shore habitats were more similar among sites than those in the low shore. Thus, physiological stresses during aerial conditions do not appear to play an overriding role, at least not in a simple way, in setting boundaries to both compositional and functional structure of these communities. Similarity ... Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales, Conicet, Buenos Aires, Argentina Abstract We investigate the extent to which functional structure and spatial variability of intertidal communities coincide with major biogeographical boundaries, areas where extensive compositional changes in the biota are observed over a limited geographic extension. We then investigate ... these did not coincide with biogeographical boundaries, nor did they follow latitudinal arrangement. Thus, processes that determine the functional structure of these intertidal communities are insensitive to biogeographical boundaries. Over both geographical and local spatial scales, and for most functional groups and tidal levels, increases in species
Responses of bacterial communities in arable soils in a rice-wheat cropping system to different fertilizer regimes and sampling times.
... bacterial communities were grouped separately from the October bacterial communities along the first axis, with the June bacterial communities more relating to higher contents of soil AK and TP, while the October bacterial communities were associated with higher contents of soil pH, OM, TK and TN. Along the second RDA axis, the bacterial communities ... (P,0.01). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0085301.t005 Linking the bacterial communities to soil characteristics, sample time and fertilizer regime Variance partitioning analysis (VPA) was used to determine the relative contributions of sample time, fertilizer regime and soil characteristics to the bacterial communities. A subset of environmental parameters (OM, TP, ... the relationship between pH and soil bacterial communities besides that the soil factors assessed in this study were not measured in the studies of Chu et al., , Roush et al.,  and Jones et al., . Thus, we hypothesize that there are important factors other than pH in shaping soil bacterial communities, which was similar with Navarrete et
Reduction and return of infectious trachoma in severely affected communities in Ethiopia.
... distributing antibiotics to entire communities. Even a single community treatment dramatically reduces the prevalence of the infection. Unfortunately, infection returns back into communities after treatment, at least in severely affected areas such as rural Ethiopia. Here, we assess whether additional scheduled treatments in 16 communities in the Gurage area ... distribution can dramatically reduce the prevalence of chlamydia[3,4,5,6]. In modestly infected communities, infection may then remain low. In fact, in some areas, infectious trachoma is decreasing even in the absence of treatment[7,8,9]. However in severely affected communities, infection clearly returns after a single mass distribution, and repeated treatments ... some of the most severely affected communities ever studied, we demonstrate that repeated mass oral azithromycin distributions progressively reduce ocular chlamydial infection in a community, as long as these distributions are given frequently enough and at a high enough coverage. However, infection returns into the communities after the last treatment.
Encouraging Teachers’ and Students’ Innovation with the Support of Teacher Learning Communities
... assess curriculum innovations on their own practices. Innovation and learning communities for professional development The theoretical framework that supports our work is based on two fundamental pillars: teaching innovation and professional development through learning communities. With regard to the first, teaching innovation, we have used the meaning ... development of Teacher Learning Communities involves collaborative work or a project that fosters the collaboration of a group of teachers who share a mission or commitment to improving their teaching practices. This project usually arises from an interest in changing their practices. The development of Teacher Learning Communities depends on: • How ... on the impact of innovation on university classrooms through learning communities. The fact that it is not just a fad or simple rhetoric must be taken into account. As indicated by Donner et al. (2008, p. 574), “a deeper understanding of what life is like in professional learning communities will challenge professional dialogue beyond the simple rhetoric
Petroleum effects on soil microbial communities
... DANIEL KUMAZAWA MORAIS PETROLEUM EFFECTS ON SOIL MICROBIAL COMMUNITIES Tese apresentada à Universidade Federal de Viçosa como parte das exigências do Programa de Pós-Graduação em Microbiologia Agrícola para obtenção do título de Doctor ... citilográfici prepiridi peli Biblioteci Centril di Universidide Federil de Viçosi - Câmpus Viçosi T M827p 2015 Morais, Daniel Kumazawa, 1987Petroleum effects on soil microbial communities / Daniel Kumazawa Morais. - Viçosa, MG, 2015. xii, 79f. : il. (algumas color.) ; 29 cm. Orientador : Marcos Rogério Tótola. Tese (doutorado) - Universidade Federal ... Departamento de Microbiologia. Programa de Pós-graduação em Microbiologia Agrícola. II. Título. CDD 22. ed. 628.536 DANIEL KUMAZAWA MORAIS PETROLEUM EFFECTS ON SOIL MICROBIAL COMMUNITIES Tese apresentada à Universidade Federal de Viçosa como parte das exigências do Programa de Pós-Graduação em Microbiologia Agrícola para obtenção do título de Doctor
Spatio-temporal monitoring of deep-sea communities using metabarcoding of sediment DNA and RNA
Unique honey bee (Apis mellifera) hive component-based communities as detected by a hybrid of phospholipid fatty-acid and fatty-acid methyl ester analyses.
Every coin has a back side: invasion by Limnohabitans planktonicus promotes the maintenance of species diversity in bacterial communities.
Attitudes and beliefs about environmental hazards in three diverse communities in Texas on the border whit Mexico
... levels within El Paso County. To assess the extent to which attitudes and beliefs varied within the area, we selected three very different communities, which will be referred to as Communities A, B, and C. All three of the communities are located in El Paso County, with two of them within the city limits. Community A is located just outside the city limits ... concerns. Agencies should be more proactive in reaching out to communities. Surveys similar to the one used in this research might be a useful starting point for dialogue. Health and environmental agencies are expected to communicate risks and the means of prevention to entire communities. Communities, however, are varied in their makeup. It is imperative that ... and beliefs of individuals within communities. The communication of environmental risk is a tricky business. There are many complications when dealing with environmental issues, not the least of which is the tension that usually exists in the relationships among agencies, corporations, and communities. In many instances, communities feel powerless to make
World Health Day 1996: Healthy Communities
... Healthy T HISTORY AND MOVEMENT Communities he theme of this year’s celebration of World Health Day was creating healthy communities. Worldwide, activities were carried out in commemoration of the day* with the goal of stimulating the launch of healthy communities programs and celebrating the achievements of those already under way. STATUS OF THE The healthy communities ... to improve local health and well-being. The benefits can extend far beyond the local scene, since many communities have joined together in Healthy Cities networks to share experiences within a country or a region, or even between regions. Healthy communities projects can be found in all parts of the Americas. In Latin America, Healthy Municipios initiatives have ... Caribbean, the healthy communities and islands concept has been gaining momentum, especially following the creation of the Caribbean Health Promotion Charter in 1993. Several islands have begun community-based projects to tackle specific health problems. Canada’s early championing of the health promotion strategy has helped spur the healthy communities movement
Development of a simplified water fluoridation technique for small communities
... Rio Grande vos, and Jardim do Serid6 (Table 2) by exdo Norte communities (Angicos, Cruzeta, content and its time of contact (in seconds) with fluorite particles having a diameter Table 2. Baseline data (1975) on caries prevalencesamong schoolchildren 7-14 years old in four Rio Grande do Norte communities where the water was fluoridated with fluorite beginning in ... Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), PAHO/WHO, and UNICEF-launched a pilot project in 1972. The project sought to use crude fluorite as the basic material for fluoridating water in small communities. This article describes work done in connection with that project. Background Considerations The first studies relating to fluoridation of public water supplies ... Health data (Table l), some 227 Brazilian cities and towns in 18 states are today using fluoridated public water (4). It is also true, however, that a significant number of these communities use sodium fluosilicate or sodium fluoride as raw material; and since these salts must be obtained from Germany, Italy, or the United States, importation problems and
Clinical and epidemiologic studies of Chagas' disease in rural communities of Oaxaca, Mexico, and an eight-year follow-up : II. Chila
... schoolchildren tested, all from the town of Miahuatlan, Oaxaca, were seropositive (7). Our 1971 seroepidemiologic surveys in 60 rural communities on the Pacific side of Oaxaca State found unusually high T. cruzi infection rates; in particular, three communities (Cerro de1 Aire, Tataltepec, and Chila) exhibited prevalences among adults ranging from 51% to 76% (8, 9). This ... and other communities in the region (9, 10). This paucity of antibody in young children indicates a near cessation of T. cruzi transmission to humans in the region from approximately 1955 to 1981. This correlates with onset of residual insecticide spraying for malaria control and with disappearance of triatomine vector(s) from Chila and other communities ... Clinical and Epidemiologic Studies of Chagas’ Disease in Rural Communities of Oaxaca, Mexico, and an Eight-year Followup: II. Chilal R. S. GOLDSMITH,~ R. I. KAGAN,~ J. R. Z~~RATE,~ L. G. ZARATE,~ G. MORALES,~ DRICKEY,~ & L. B. JACOBSON~ 444 A