Cardiovascular Risk

Prevalence and risk factors of asymptomatic peripheral arterial disease in patients with COPD in Taiwan.

... independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and death. J Cardiovasc Risk 7: 267–272. 12. Sin DD, Wu L, Man SF (2005) The relationship between reduced lung function and cardiovascular mortality: a population-based study and a systematic review of the literature. Chest 127: 1952–1959. 13. Wood-Baker R, Cochrane B, Naughton MT (2010) Cardiovascular ... countries. Hyperlipidemia, old age, hypertension, and smoking burden were the associated cardiovascular risk factors. However, there was no association between lung function and PAD in the COPD patients. Citation: Lin M-S, Hsu K-Y, Chen Y-J, Chen C-R, Chen C-M, et al. (2013) Prevalence and Risk Factors of Asymptomatic Peripheral Arterial Disease in Patients with COPD ... and GOLD stage between the two groups. The age and co-morbidities between the different GOLD grades were shown in Table 2. All the cardiovascular risks had no significance difference between the four stages. Prevalence of PAD and risk factors in the elderly COPD patients Measurement of ABI Ankle and brachial pressures were measured using volumeplethysmographic
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Association between CTLA-4 60G/A and -1661A/G polymorphisms and the risk of cancers: a meta-analysis.

... 2. Meta-analysis of the CTLA-4 60G/A (rs3087243) polymorphism and cancer risk. The CTLA-4 60 G/A and -1661 A/G and Cancer Risk December 2013 | Volume 8 | Issue 12 | e83710 The CTLA-4 60 G/A and -1661 A/G and Cancer Risk Figure 2. Forest plot of the association between cancer risk and the CTLA-4 60G/A polymorphism using the homozygote model (AA vs. ... of the CTLA-4 -1661A/G (rs4553808) polymorphism and cancer risk. The CTLA-4 60 G/A and -1661 A/G and Cancer Risk December 2013 | Volume 8 | Issue 12 | e83710 The CTLA-4 60 G/A and -1661 A/G and Cancer Risk Figure 3. Overall association between the CTLA-4 -1661A/G polymorphism and cancer risk for all subjects using the heterozygote model (GA vs. ... G/A and -1661 A/G and Cancer Risk 31. Bharti V, Mohanti BK, Das SN (2013) Functional genetic variants of CTLA-4 and risk of tobacco-related oral carcinoma in high -risk North Indian population. Hum Immunol 74: 348–352. 32. Feng D, Yang X, Li S, Liu T, Wu Z, et al. (2013) Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 genetic variants and risk of Ewing’s sarcoma. Genet
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Public health risk analysis through evaluation of drinking water safety

... L, 7. 8. 9. 10. Bartram J, editors. Water quality - Guidelines, standards and health: Assessment of risk and risk management for waterrelated infectious disease. London: IWA Publishing; 2001. p. 61–88. Ivetić M, Kostić D. Analysis and evaluation of risk regarding safe water supply – examples from Serbian and the world. Conference on the modern civil ... microbiological or biological factors) of some water-related diseases. The current PH risk analysis approach concerning drinking water is based on cause-effect relations and probabilities of unwanted events, i.e. human exposure to CTs. This approach fails to capture all of the risk factors involved, valuable data on exposure to given hazards. During the water usage ... and complemented by paradigm shift. Breaking away from risk, which seeks for adverse events, we could look into safety, which seeks for proper way of doing things. A novel approach, systems-theoretic accident model and processes (STAMP) 10, originated from safety and resilience engineering, is proposed to expand traditional risk analysis which is primarily based on
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Urbanization and the Risk of Flooding In the Congo; Case of The City Of Brazzaville

... (AJER) 2015 American Journal of Engineering Research (AJER) e-ISSN : 2320-0847 p-ISSN : 2320-0936 Volume-04, Issue-01, pp-49-54 open Access Research Paper Urbanization and the Risk of Flooding In the Congo; Case of The City Of Brazzaville Nzoussi Hilaire Kevin 1 Prof Li Jiang Feng 2 1 School of Public Administration, China University of Geosciences, ... standards of public space in the city which causes uncontrolled building, with major flooding during rainy periods to disproportionate consequences. KEYS WORDS; Urbanization, risk, flooding, Congo, city, Brazzaville I. INTRODUCTION Urbanization is a very old phenomenon that dates back several years. Congo particularly population growth is the major ... anarchic occupation of space, high rainfall and the special extension are all problems that are the cause of flooding in the city of Brazzaville. This article aims to study urbanization and the risk of flooding in the city of Brazzaville, and offers appropriate solutions in order to remedy situations of flooding as floods are still a concern in recent years the population
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Clinical outcomes in low risk coronary artery disease patients treated with different limus-based drug-eluting stents--a nationwide retrospective cohort study using insurance claims database.

... patients) concluded that there was no significant difference regarding the risk of cardiac death or MI between EES and SES but a significant reduction in the risk of repeated revascularization in the EES arm was noted.[37] In our study, we observed no significant difference regarding the risks of all-cause mortality, acute coronary events, HF needing hospitalization, ... characteristics was used to compare the relative risks of different outcomes among the three different limus-based DES. Totally, 6584 patients were evaluated (n=2142 for SES, n=3445 for E-ZES, and n=997 for EES). After adjusting for baseline characteristics, we found no statistically significant difference in the risk of all-cause mortality in three DES groups ... and 39 in the EES group [3.9%]). After adjusting for baseline characteristics, we found no statistically significant difference in the risk of all-cause mortality in the three DES groups in spite of a trend of lower risk in EES group (adjusted hazard ratio [HR]: 1.14, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.94–1.38, p = 0.20 in E-ZES group compared with SES
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Genetic variation in selenoprotein genes, lifestyle, and risk of colon and rectal cancer.

... modify the risk associated with the genes. We observed that TNXRD1 and TNXRD2 interacted with both aspirin and cigarette smoking to alter colon and rectal cancer risk. TNXRD3 also interacted with aspirin/ NSAID use to modify risk of rectal cancer, in that those with the variant genotype who did not use aspirin/NSAID had a similar reduced risk of rectal ... genotype of these candidate selenoprotein genes. TXNRD1, TXNRD2, TXNRD3, and SelN1 interacted with BMI to alter risk of colon cancer and TXNRD1 interacted with BMI to statistically alter risk associated with rectal cancer (Table 5). The adjusted risk for SelN1 and colon cancer and both TXNRD1 SNPs and rectal cancer remained statistically significant after ... aspirin/NSAIDs to influence rectal cancer. Five SNPs in TXNRD2 and one in SelS, SeP15, and SelW1 interacted with estrogen to modify colon cancer risk; one SNP in SelW1 interacted with estrogen to alter rectal cancer risk. Several SNPs in this candidate pathway influenced survival after diagnosis with colon cancer (SeP15 and SepX1 increased HRR) and rectal
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... change respondents identified this risk as the top risk 2 42% of the The level Rising transportation costs respondents of risk identified this went risk as the top down by 9 risk points, 51% to 42% 3 38% of the The level Commodity price volatility respondents of risk identified this went risk as the top down by 5 risk points, 43% ... 2, 2009 1 risk identification, risk analysis and risk evaluation. 2.3.1 Risk identification It is often useful to consider categories of risks as a starting point to guide organizations in an initial assessment of their supply chains. Many authors have their own opinion of identifying Supply chain risks. Thinking broadly, risks in supply chains ... chains Risks can be seen as internal or external to the focal firm, and be seen as internal or external to the supply chain[5]: • Process risk • Control risk • Supply risk • Demand risk • Environmental risk Figure 3 – risks in supply chains AMR Research is company that provides A. Aleksić, B.Jeremić, M. Stefanović, M. Đapan 2 comprehensive research
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Comorbidity of depression and type 2 diabetes: Risk factors and clinical significance

... Depression as a risk factor for the onset of type 2 diabetes mellitus. A meta-analysis. Diabetologia 2006; 49(5): 837–45. 23. Cosgrove MP, Sargeant LA, Griffin SJ. Does depression increase the risk of developing type 2 diabetes? Occup Med (Lond) 2008; 58(1): 7–14. 24. Brown LC, Majumdar SR, Newman SC, Johnson JA. History of depression increases risk of type ... dijabetes melitus, insulin-nezavisni; depresija; komorbiditet; faktori rizika; kvalitet života; antidepresivi. Key words: diabetes mellitus, type 2; depression; comorbidity; risk factors; quality of life; antidepressive agents. Uvod Epidemiološki podaci pokazuju da će se broj osoba obolelih od dijabetesa skoro udvostručiti, sa 2,8% 2000. na 4,4%, ... committee on the diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care 2003; 26(Supp l): S5–20. 3. World Health Organization. The World Health Report 2002. Reducing Risks, Promoting Healthy Life. Geneva: WHO; 2002. Also available from: htpp:// 4. Murray CJ, Lopez AD. Alternative projections of mortality and disability by cause
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Prevalence of myopia and its risk factors in urban school children in Delhi: the North India Myopia Study (NIM Study).

... (p
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Avaliação não invasiva da função endotelial e sua associação com fatores de risco cardiovascular em adultos brasileiros: estudo longitudinal da saúde do adulto

... measures of vascular function to flow mediated dilatation as a measure of cardiovascular risk factors. Am J Cardiol 2009;103:1610-1615. 19 Anderson TJ, Charbonneau F, Title LM, Buithieu J, Rose MS, Conradson H, Hildebrand K, Fung M, Verma S, Lonn EM. Microvascular function predicts cardiovascular events in primary prevention: long-term results from the ... OBJETIVOS................................................................................................................... 24 3. ARTIGO: RELATIONS OF DIGITAL VASCULAR FUNCTION, CARDIOVASCULAR RISK FACTORS AND ARTERIAL STIFFNESS: THE ELSABRASIL COHORT STUDY............................................................................................ 25 ABSTRACT........................................................................................................................ ... de risco e prediz eventos cardiovasculares. A tonometria arterial periférica (PAT) avalia, nos vasos digitais, a amplitude do pulso basal, a função endotelial (PAT ratio) e a reflexão da onda de pulso (PAT-AIx). Neste estudo, investigamos, em adultos brasileiros, a associação das respostas obtidas pela PAT com fatores de risco cardiovascular e com a velocidade
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Identificação de fatores de risco cardiovascular e avaliação da espessura mediointimal das artérias carótidas em jovens e crianças com deficiência da enzima 21-hidroxilase

... replacement. Recently, risk factors for cardiovascular diseases such as obesity, hypertension, hyperinsulinemia and endothelial dysfunction have been reported in patients with deficiency of the enzyme 21-hydroxylase. The reasons for these findings are not properly clarified. The aim of this study was to identify cardiovascular risk factors, evaluate ... population with CAH, it was observed higher cIMT, an independent risk factor for cardiovascular risk, higher BMI z score/age and higher blood pressure levels. These findings indicate the need for more studies and long term evaluation to confirm the results, seeking early intervention to prevent cardiovascular complications in young patients with CAH. Keywords: ... foi observado maior EMIC, fator independente para risco cardiovascular, maior escore z IMC/Idade e maiores níveis pressóricos. Esses achados indicam a necessidade de outros estudos, para confirmação dos resultados e avaliação a longo prazo, visando intervenção precoce e prevenção de complicações cardiovasculares em jovens com HAC. Palavras-chave: esteróide
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Microrregulação produzida pelos prestadores de serviços na linha do cuidado cardiovascular na saúde suplementar em Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais

... GOMES MICRORREGULAÇÃO PRODUZIDA PELOS PRESTADORES DE SERVIÇO NA LINHA DO CUIDADO CARDIOVASCULAR NA SAÚDE SUPLEMENTAR EM BELO HORIZONTE, MINAS GERAIS Belo Horizonte Escola de Enfermagem da UFMG 2011 ANA CECÍLIA DE GODOY GOMES MICRORREGULAÇÃO PRODUZIDA PELOS PRESTADORES DE SERVIÇO NA LINHA DO CUIDADO CARDIOVASCULAR NA SAÚDE SUPLEMENTAR EM BELO HORIZONTE, MINAS ... Serviços de Saúde. Doenças Cardiovasculares. Assistência integral à saúde. ABSTRACT Modern society’s way of life has a significant contribution to the rise of chronic noncommunicable diseases. Nowadays, they represent 46% of all diseases around the world. It is estimated that 17 million deaths per year are caused by cardiovascular disorders. About ... de concentração: Saúde e Enfermagem. Dissertação (Mestrado): Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Escola de Enfermagem. 1. Saúde Suplementar. 2. Serviços de Saúde. 3. Doenças Cardiovasculares. 4. Assistência Integral à Saúde. 5. Dissertações Acadêmicas. I. Lana, Francisco Carlos Felix. II. Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Escola de Enfermagem.
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Parâmetros de predição de risco cardiovascular em pacientes infectados pelo HIV

... laboratory investigations ...........................……………..…………. 53 Calculation of cardiovascular disease risk using the Framingham equation ... 53 Calculation of cardiovascular disease risk using the SCORE equation ........... 54 Calculation of cardiovascular disease risk using the PROCAM equation ........ 54 Statistical analysis ………………..………………………………………………… ... de PCRus a tradicionais fatores de risco cardiovascular e a parâmetros próprios da infecção pelo HIV e comparar as equações de avaliação de risco cardiovascular de Framingham, SCORE (Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation) e PROCAM (Prospective Cardiovascular Munster) em pacientes infectados pelo HIV sem doença cardiovascular clinicamente aparente. Metodologia: ... ultra-sensível a tradicionais fatores de risco cardiovascular e a parâmetros próprios da infecção pelo HIV; 3) comparar as equações de avaliação de risco cardiovascular de Framingham, SCORE (Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation) e PROCAM (Prospective Cardiovascular Munster) em pacientes infectados pelo HIV sem doença cardiovascular clinicamente aparente; PRIMEIRO
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Conceitos de física básica que todo cirurgião cardiovascular deve saber: parte I - mecânica dos fluídos.

... apresentá-la como ferramenta útil na explicação de fenômenos conhecidos na rotina do cirurgião cardiovascular. Descritores: Física. Hemodinâmica. Procedimentos cirúrgicos cardiovasculares. Mecânica de fluídos. RBCCV 44205-1142 Abstract The professional activity that the cardiovascular surgeon performs is much more than a simple gesture to mechanically operate ... Preto - Hospital de Base – FAMERP. 5. Professor Livre Docente da FAMERP - Departamento de Cardiologia e Cirurgia Cardiovascular. 6. Professor Livre Docente em Cirurgia Cardiovascular - Professor adjunto do Departamento de Cardiologia e Cirurgia Cardiovascular da Faculdade de Medicina de São José do Rio Preto e Diretor Adjunto da Pós-Graduação da FAMERP. Trabalho ... study is not to enable the reader to the knowledge of all physics, but to show it as a useful tool in explaining phenomena known in the routine of cardiovascular surgery. Descriptors: Physics. Hemodynamics. Cardiovascular surgical procedures. Fluid mechanics. 1. Doutorando da Faculdade de Medicina de São José do Rio Preto (FAMERP); Estagiário de Cirurgia
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Lesão bilateral dos óstios coronários na sífilis cardiovascular: relato de caso.

... óstios coronários na sífilis cardiovascular: relato de caso Bilateral ostial coronary lesion in cardiovascular syphilis: case report Mauricio de Nassau MACHADO1, Percival F. TRINDADE2, Rafael Carlos MIRANDA3, Lilia Nigro MAIA4 Resumo A sífilis é uma doença infecciosa que se desenvolve em estágios e pode acometer o sistema cardiovascular e neurológico. ... tratamento antibiótico com penicilina cristalina. Descritores: Sífilis cardiovascular. Aortite. Coronariopatia. Edema pulmonar. Infarto do miocárdio. RBCCV 44205-962 Abstract Syphilis is an infectious disease occurring through a series of frequently overlapping stages. It can impair the cardiovascular and neurological system. In 30% of the non treated ... bilateral dos óstios coronários na sífilis cardiovascular: relato de caso Rev Bras Cir Cardiovasc 2008; 23(1): 129-131 Ecocardiograma não mostrou alterações em relação ao exame pré-operatório. Recebeu alta hospitalar após 21 dias de tratamento com penicilina cristalina intravenosa, assintomático do ponto de vista cardiovascular e com boa evolução da
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Metanálise de Rede para Sintetizar Evidências para a Tomada de Decisão na Pesquisa Cardiovascular.

... Artigo de Revisão Metanálise de Rede para Sintetizar Evidências para a Tomada de Decisão na Pesquisa Cardiovascular Network Meta-analysis to Synthesize Evidence for Decision Making in Cardiovascular Research Leonardo Roever1 e Giuseppe Biondi-Zoccai2,3 Universidade Federal de Uberlândia – Departmento de Pesquisa Clínica¹, ... de resumir as principais características da metanálise de rede e seu potencial impacto sobre a tomada de decisão na prática cardiovascular. Palavras-chave Metanálise; Medicina Baseada em Evidências; Revisão; Pesquisa; Doenças Cardiovasculares; Estudo Comparativo. Correspondência: Leonardo S. Roever-Borges • Universidade Federal de Uberlândia. Av. ... excelência devem incluir informações Conclusões A tomada de decisões na prática cardiovascular é muitas vezes baseada em evidências complexas, porém incompletas. A metanálise de rede representa uma ferramenta única, versátil e poderosa para melhorar a tomada de decisão cardiovascular. Arq Bras Cardiol. 2016; 106(4):333-337 336 Roever e Biondi-Zoccai
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Identificação de fatores de risco cardiovascular em pais/cuidadores de crianças cardiopatas.

... 2012;99(4):936-943) Palavras-chave: Doenças cardiovasculares; fatores de risco; criança; estilo de vida; estado nutricional; cuidadores; pais. Abstract Background: Cardiovascular diseases are one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In Brazil, they are the major cause of death. Objective: To identify cardiovascular risk factors in parents/caregivers ... in relation to obesity, as detected by BMI, and hypertension, both more frequent among women. Waist circumference measurement also showed a higher cardiovascular risk in women. Conclusion: Cardiovascular risk factors such as excess weight, sedentary lifestyle, and hypertension as well as inadequate eating habits such as a high frequency of intake of ... Artigo Original Identificação de Fatores de Risco Cardiovascular em Pais/ Cuidadores de Crianças Cardiopatas Identification of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Parents/Caregivers of Children with Heart Diseases Camila Feijó Borges1, Fernanda Michielin Busnello2, Lucia Campos
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Influência da aterosclerose subclínica na função diastólica em indivíduos sem doença cardiovascular.

... intima-media thickness and risk of stroke and myocardial infarction: the Rotterdam Study. Circulation. 1997; 96 (4): 1432-7. 20. Chambless LE, Heiss G, Folsom AR, Rosamond W, Szklo M, Sharrett AR, et al. Association of coronary heart disease incidence with carotid arterial wall thickness and major risk factors: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) ... SK Jr. Carotid-artery intima and media thickness as a risk factor for myocardial infarction and stroke in older adults. Cardiovascular Health Study Collaborative Research Group. N Engl J Med. 1999; 340 (1): 14-22. 22. Salonen JT, Salonen R. Ultrasonographically assessed carotid morphology and the risk of coronary heart disease. Arterioscler Thromb. ... atherosclerosis and diastolic function has not been established in subjects free of cardiovascular disease. Objective: To test the hypothesis that subclinical atherosclerosis has a negative association with diastolic function. Methods: Individuals ≥ 35 years old, free of cardiovascular disease, with normal blood pressure and negative treadmill stress test,
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Relação de indicadores antropométricos com fatores de risco para doença cardiovascular.

... profile in both sex groups. This data support the hypothesis that BMI and WHR may be considered as risk factors for cardiovascular disease. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2010; [online]. ahead print, PP.0-0) Key words: Cardiovascular diseases; obesity; anthropometry/methods; risk factors. Full texts in English - Correspondência: Regina ... Relação de Indicadores Antropométricos com Fatores de Risco para Doença Cardiovascular Relation between Anthropometric Indicators and Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease Mirele Arruda Michelotto de Oliveira1, Regina Lúcia Martins Fagundes1, Emília Addison Machado Moreira1, Erasmo Benício ... doença cardiovascular é considerada mundialmente a principal causa de morte e de invalidez. Apesar da queda na proporção de mortes ocorridas por doença cardiovascular, em países desenvolvidos, nas últimas décadas, os índices têm crescido enormemente em países de baixa e média renda1. Têm-se estabelecido uma relação positiva entre as manifestações cardiovasculares
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Obesidade abdominal e risco cardiovascular: desempenho de indicadores antropométricos em mulheres.

... of waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio and body mass index as indicators of cardiovascular risk factors. The Canadian Heart Health Surveys. Int J Obes. 2001; 25 (5): 652-61. 17. Ito H, Nakasuga K, Ohshima A, Maruyama T, Kaki Y, Harada M. Detection of cardiovascular risk factors by indices of obesity obtained from anthropometry and dual-energy ... et al. Optimal cut-off values for obesity: using simple anthropometric indices to predict cardiovascular risk factors in Taiwan. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2002; 26 (9): 1232-8. 21. Pua YH, Ong PH. Anthropometric indices as screening tools for cardiovascular risk factors in Singaporean women. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2005; 14 (1): 74-9. 22. Hara K, ... Artigo Original Obesidade Abdominal e Risco Cardiovascular: Desempenho de Indicadores Antropométricos em Mulheres Abdominal Obesity and Cardiovascular Risk: Performance of Anthropometric Indexes in Women Rogério Tosta de Almeida1,2, Maura Maria Guimarães de Almeida1, Tânia
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Perfil de saúde cardiovascular de uma população adulta da região metropolitana de São Paulo.

... sedentary. CONCLUSÃO A população de estudo apresentou maior risco de doenças cardiovasculares, segundo critérios da SEC, especialmente devido à elevada prevalência de indivíduos com sobrepeso e hipercolesterolemia. CONCLUSION The study population showed greater risk of cardiovascular diseases, according to ESC criteria, due especially to the high ... diseases, according to ESC criteria, due especially to the high prevalence of overweight and hypercholesterolemia. PALAVRAS-CHAVE Saúde cardiovascular, adultos, fatores de risco. KEY WORDS Cardiovascular health, adults, risk factors. Correspondência: Renata Furlan Viebig • Rua Capitão Manoel Novaes, 101 – 02017-030 – São Paulo, SP E-mail: Recebido ... Lotufo PA. As doenças cardiovasculares no Brasil: estudo de caso da tendência da mortalidade no Estado de São Paulo 19701989.[dissertação]. São Paulo: Faculdade de Saúde PúblicaUniversidade de São Paulo; 1993. 5. Barreto SM, Passos VM, Firmo JO, Guerra HL, Vidigal PG, Lima-Costa MF. Hypertension and clustering of cardiovascular risk factors in a community
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Epidemiologic identification of infants with low birth weight in urban areas of Latin America:: II A simplified risk score for early prenatal

... Riskscore basedon attributablerisk .40 50 60 70 30 ,.90 1.00 1 - speclfrcltyi 100 Figure 2. Receiver operating characteristics curve for the LBW risk scores of 6,542 study women. The white dots represent risk scores based on odds ratios, while the black dots represent risk scores based on attributable risk. me 2 compares the risk scores reflecting odds ... < 10th percentile aThe attributable risk for the total population (as a percentage of the total risk) is expressed by the following equation: Attributable risk (%) = 1OOF (OR - 1) 1 +F(OR-1) where F is the decimal portion of the population with the risk factor present and OR is the odds ratio. the particular risk factor in question from the population. This ... (the only risk scores we have employed up to this point, see Table 1) with other risk scores reflecting population-attributable risks (see the right-hand column of Table 3 for this risk score index). No significant differences were observed in the results obtained with the two methods. DISCUSSION In illustrating our method of deriving a risk score
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Risk of cholera transmission by foods

... results of the experimental studies cited above. Theoretically, fresh produce poses a risk of cholera transmission if eaten raw and unwashed or allowed to cross-contaminate other foods. Fruit concentrates and pulps with a pH of less than 4.5, as well as pickled foods, pose no risk of cholera transmission. Canned foods will be free of K choierae provided they ... contaminated during handling. The consumption of fresh raw fishery products poses the greatest risk, although the potential for disease transmission also exists with frozen, iced, or refrigerated seafood. Since freezing does not kill the organisms effectively, previously frozen seafood still poses a risk if eaten raw or allowed to cross-contaminate other foods. Because K ... defecation and before preparing and eating food; and covering prepared food to avoid contact with flies. The risk of transmission of cholera by foods requires that government authorities and the food industry cooperate to eliminate or control this risk. Food that is susceptible to contamination with Vibrio cholerae should be produced and handled according
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World Health Day 1992 focuses on cardiovascular health

... groups at high risk, such as diaCarlyle Guerra de Macedo, PAHO’s Dibetics and persons suffering from hyrector, and featured an keynote address percholesterolemia, obesity, and arterial by Senator J. Robert Kerrey of Nebraska. The program called attention to the hypertension. In developing countries, it is often difgrowing incidence of cardiovascular ... of decade, it is projected that cardiovascular living makes products such as tobacco diseases will cause two to three times more deaths than infectious diseases in and alcohol more attainable, the governLatin America. Despite their decline since ments must mount public education campaigns to counteract advertising by these the 197Os, cardiovascular diseases ... observation: a world free of Cold use all possible means to educate the War conflicts should be able to direct more public about the risks associated with these resources toward the conquest of chronic behaviors. Official cardiovascular disease diseases. 286 Bulletin of PAHO 26(3), 1992
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Selection of mothers with increased risk of delivery low birthweight newborns at a public maternity hospital in Rosario, Argentina

... schooling) Beltin et al. Screeningfor Low Birthweight Risk 415 15. Siblings (mother two live children) has more than Once the cutoff points were established, the relative risk and the attributable risk were calculated for each variable (see Tables l-3). Relative risk is the extent to which a particular risk factor increases the likelihood that affected ... Birthweight Risk 417 Table 3. Apparent influence of the 15 risk factors upon preterm deliveries among infants born to the 1,209 study mothers. The overall incidence of preterm delivery was 16.3%. Risk factor 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8a 8b 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Risk factor incidence in study population (%) Incidence of prematurity (%) Relative risk 21.4 25.4 1.81 (1.40-3.13) 14.8 17.8 1.02 (0.58-1.85) 0.3 11.3 11.5 1.29 (0.67-2.89) 3 5.0 15.4 1.79 (0.73-6.03) 4 16.9 1.07 2.04 (0.57-2.20) (1.35-4.74) (0.74-1.68) Low ... .67) (0.34-l .03) Risk Attributable risk W) 8 5 1 incomplete primary 15 416 schooling) Siblings (22 live children) Bulletin of PAHO 23(4), 1989 4 -18 Table 2. Apparent influence of the 15 risk factors upon intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) among infants born to the 1,209 study mothers. The overall incidence of IUCR was 6.8%. Risk factor Low
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