Bacterial Cellulose

Humpback whale populations share a core skin bacterial community: towards a health index for marine mammals?

... [8]. These findings suggest that humpback whales may harbor specific skin -bacterial associates. However, documenting if and how skin bacterial communities vary between humpbacks from different populations and geographic areas is necessary to understand the extent of this hostbacterial specificity. Importantly, documenting the presence of a core, or ... revealed that the majority of the whale-skin bacterial communities reached a plateau at ,100 OTUs (Figure 1). The average observed number of bacterial OTUs associated with whale skin varied among 71–99 with some variation among samples (Table 1). There was no significant difference in the richness of the skin -bacterial communities (measured by OTU abundance) ... composition and Using the core bacterial community concept to develop a health-index for whale skin The bacterial communities associated with the normal individuals were compared to determine indicator criteria for normal, ‘healthy’ skin, including: OTU richness of the entire community and abundances of the main core bacterial community members (Tenacibaculum
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CB2 cannabinoid receptors contribute to bacterial invasion and mortality in polymicrobial sepsis.

... therapy have shown that systemic bacterial dissemination is a major factor contributing to the mortality of both experimental animals and humans during sepsis [39–41]. Our studies showed that bacterial burden was decreased in CB2 receptor KO mice suggesting that CB2 receptor activation contributes mortality by increasing systemic bacterial burden during sepsis. ... role of CB2 receptors in regulating bacterial sepsis is unknown. In the present study, using a genetic approach we examined the role of CB2 receptors in regulating the host’s response to polymicrobial sepsis. plated and cultured on trypticase blood agar plates (BD Biosciences) at 37uC. After 24 hours, the number of bacterial colonies was counted. Quantitative ... than 0.05. Quantification of bacterial CFUs from peritoneal lavage fluid and blood 100 ml of blood or peritoneal lavage fluid was diluted serially in sterile physiological saline. 50 ml of each dilution was aseptically PLoS ONE | 2 July 2009 | Volume 4 | Issue 7 | e6409 CB2 Receptors in Sepsis assessed the impact of CB2 receptor inactivation on bacterial
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Frequency of development of bacterial vaginitis in symptomatic and asymptomatic women of reproductive age, aged 18 – 45 years old

... 2005 Catchpole M. Bacterial vaginosis: a public health review. BJOG 2001, 108:439‐50. 13. Leitich H, Bodner­Adler B, Brunbauer M, Kaider A, Egarter C, Husslein P. Bacterial vaginosis as a risk factor for preterm delivery: a meta‐analysis. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2003, 189:139‐47. 14. Larsson PG, Carlsson B, Fahraeus L, Jakobsson T, Forsum U. Diagnosis of bacterial ... 2001, 184:1431‐6. 6. Siochu A, Ioannidou M, Siochu I, Kapoukranidou D. Bacterial vaginitis in young 2. Tohill BC, Heilig CM, Klein RS, sexually Trends in active Biomedical Rompalo A, Cu­Uvin S, Brown W, Conference Duerr A: Vaginal flora morphotypic Academy profiles and assessment of bacterial Ioannina Greece 2005. of for the women. New Research 4rd German‐Greek Biomedical Research vaginosis ... Wabwire­Mangen scoring bacterial morphotypes. Sex Transm Infect 2004, 80:63‐7. F, Serwadda DLiC, Kiwanuka N, Hillier SL, Rabe L, Gaydos CA, Quinn TC, 15. Forsum U, Jakobsson T, Larsson PG, Konde­Lule J.HIV‐1 infection associated Schmidt H, Beverly A, Bjornerem A, with abnormal vaginal flora morphology Carlsson B, Csango P, Donders G, Hay and bacterial
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A novel mechanism of bacterial toxin transfer within host blood cell-derived microvesicles.

... and reflecting the inflammatory and thrombogenic process occurring during HUS [27]. Here we defined a new mechanism of virulence in this non-invasive bacterial infection showing that microvesicles transfer bacterial toxin to target cells. Thus blood cell derived-microvesicles may play an important role in the development of HUS. Future studies will address ... Sweden) and re-suspended in 20% (w/v) sucrose and 10% (w/v) NaHCO3 in sterile water at a concentration of 109 colony forming units (CFU)/mL. The bacterial concentration was confirmed by plating serial dilutions of the bacterial suspension on Luria-Bertani agar plates. Each mouse was infected orally with 108 CFU in 100 μl solution. Infection protocol The ... Escherichia coli, which are non-invasive strains that can lead to hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), associated with renal failure and death. Although bacteremia does not occur, bacterial virulence factors gain access to the circulation and are thereafter presumed to cause target organ damage. Stx was previously shown to circulate bound to blood cells
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Denitrification in agriculturally impacted streams: seasonal changes in structure and function of the bacterial community.

... stream among dates (p,0.05). Total bacterial abundance (based on DAPI counts) differed between the two streams (p,0.05), and among dates (p,0.05); the stream by date interaction was also significant (p,0.05). Bacterial abundance was similar in both LWD and Sugar Creek in April and May; these dates had the highest bacterial abundance across all dates ... 3A). In Sugar Creek, after spring (April and May) bacterial abundances declined slighting (abundances in PLOS ONE | September, November, and December were similar). LWD bacterial abundance decreased significantly in September and November, when flow was absent or had just returned; bacterial abundance for these dates was significantly ... higher discharge [11,12,53]. At the same time that denitrification rates dropped in LWD with seasonal drying, total bacterial numbers declined perhaps because of elevated bacterial mortality or reduced growth [54,55]. A lag period was also observed; bacterial cell numbers did not reach pre-drying levels until December, roughly one month following the return
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Clostridium difficile is an autotrophic bacterial pathogen.

... hampered by the fact that C. difficile is able to generate endospores, highly resistant bacterial survival forms, which thus can persist in the gut after antibiotic treatment, germinate again into viable cells, and lead to recurrence of the disease. As of yet, all human bacterial pathogens (thus including C. difficile) are considered to be heterotrophic ... identification of bacterial selenocysteine insertion sequence elements and selenoprotein genes. Bioinformatics 21: 2580–2589. 25. Shut GJ, Adams MWW (2009) The iron-hydrogenase of Thermotoga maritima utilizes ferredoxin and NADH synergistically: a new perspective on anaerobic hydrogen production. J Bacteriol 13: 4451–4457. 26. Biegel E, Müller V (2010) Bacterial ... present data that C. difficile (both clinical and rumen isolates) is also able to grow on CO2+H2 as sole carbon and energy source, thus representing the first identified autotrophic bacterial pathogen. Comparison of several different strains revealed high conservation of genes for autotrophic growth and showed that the ability to use gas mixtures for growth
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A doubling of microphytobenthos biomass coincides with a tenfold increase in denitrifier and total bacterial abundances in intertidal sediments of a temperate estuary.

... types of algal -bacterial coupling exist in these complex estuarine ecosystem [27]. Photosynthetically fixed carbon by MPB is transferred to heterotrophic bacteria within hours, resulting in a quick use of labile biofilm DOC and hydrolysed EPS [28–32], while MPB can also produce cytotoxins that can inhibit bacterial growth [33]. These algal -bacterial interactions ... bacteria in underlying sediments, including higher bacterial enzymatic activity [35] and EPS production [36] but without or with only a small increase in total bacterial cell numbers [36–40], remains ambiguous. Based on the current knowledge, we hypothesized that higher MPB biomass (i) does not affect total bacterial abundances, (ii) negatively impacts denitrifier ... diversity of the total bacterial community as well as both nirS and nirK denitrifying guilds were assessed using qPCR and 454 pyrosequencing. Abundant and non-abundant fractions of all three bacterial communities (i.e. all bacteria, nirK, nirS) were examined separately to also assess influences of the low-abundant fraction of the bacterial community on
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Effectiveness of Agents Like Platelet-rich Plasma, Oxidized Regenerated Cellulose and Microfibrillar Collagen in Hard-tissue Healing: Validation of t heir Comparative Effectiveness

... effects markedly.14 • Oxidized regenerated cellulose and microfibrillar collagen: Oxidized regenerated cellulose depends upon multiple mechanisms of action for hemostasis and bone healing, including physical and mechanical actions in tamponade and surface interaction with proteins, platelets. Oxidized regenerated cellulose may also promote hemostasis chemically ... oxidized regenerated cellulose (ORC). In contrast, alkylene oxide copolymer (AOC) did not inhibit bone healing and suggest that AOC may be a better bone hemostatic material for procedures where bony fusion is critical and immediate hemostasis required. Keywords: Platelet-rich plasma, Microfibrillar collagen, Oxidized regenerated cellulose, Alkylene oxide ... OMPJ Review article 10.5005/jp-journals-10037-1048 Effectiveness of Agents Like Platelet-rich Plasma, Oxidized Regenerated Cellulose Effectiveness of Agents Like Platelet-rich Plasma, Oxidized Regenerated Cellulose and Microfibrillar Collagen in Hard-tissue Healing: Validation of their Comparative Effectiveness 1 Khalid Al Fouzan, 2Hari
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The neglected intrinsic resistome of bacterial pathogens.

... common to all strains of a bacterial species that has not been acquired as a result of recent utilization of antibiotics for therapy. To address the elements involved in the building-up of bacterial intrinsic resistance, we investigated the intrinsic resistome of the model organism Pseudomonas aeruginosa. [10,11,12,13]. This bacterial species is the ... (resistome [8]). In the current study, we focused on the second problem, the existence of species-specific bacterial intrinsic resistome, defined as the ensemble of chromosomal genes that are involved in intrinsic resistance and whose presence in strains of a bacterial species is independent of previous antibiotic exposure and is not due horizontal gene transfer ... February 2008 | Volume 3 | Issue 2 | e1619 Intrinsic Bacterial Resistome characteristic low susceptibility to antibiotics [17,18,19]. It is worth to state that P. aeruginosa is a free-living organisms capable to thrive in different environments [20]. Furthermore, it has been shown that this bacterial species utilizes the same virulence determinants
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Biochemical Characterization of a Family 15 Carbohydrate Esterase from a Bacterial Marine Arctic Metagenome.

... DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0159345 July 19, 2016 2 / 22 Bacterial Glucuronoyl Esterase from a Metagenome erroneously annotated as acetyl xylan esterases in bacteria [10]. Such genes are found in bacterial phyla Planctomycetaceae and Verrucomicrobia which are notoriously difficult to cultivate [11–13], suggesting that further diversity of bacterial CE15s may be accessible ... homologs in 137 bacterial species with highest scores from the phyla Planctomycetaceae, Bacteroidetes and Verrucomicrobia. The majority of these proteins were annotated as either acetyl xylan esterases or hypothetical products, and bacterial representatives from this set were included in the tree. Additional sequences including both fungal and bacterial proteins ... exploit this potential source of variation, we have undertaken the recombinant expression, purification and characterization of a single-domain bacterial CE15 homolog, MZ0003, which derives from metagenomic bacterial DNA isolated from marine Arctic sediment. Here we report that MZ0003 has some glucuronoyl esterase activity; however it has a number of
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The Pseudomonas aeruginosa chemotaxis methyltransferase CheR1 impacts on bacterial surface sampling.

... processing: lessons from bacterial chemotaxis. J Biol Chem 277: 9625–9628. 16. Springer WR, Koshland DEJ (1977) Identification of a protein methyltransferase as the cheR gene product in the bacterial sensing system. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 74: 533–537. 17. Stock JB, Koshland DEJ (1978) A protein methylesterase involved in bacterial sensing. Proc Natl ... been estimated that up to 80% of the bacterial infections in the industrialized countries are biofilm associated infections, refractory to antimicrobial therapy [4]. In order to develop novel strategies for biofilm control, it is critical to understand the adaptive pathways leading to the development and maintenance of bacterial biofilms. So far, research ... doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0018184.g004 bacterial biofilm formation. P. aeruginosa harbors a complex chemotaxis system that seems to be involved in flagella-driven chemotaxis and in determining the cellular organization within biofilms. This renders P. aeruginosa probably a good model microorganism for investigating the roles of chemotaxis in bacterial adaptation to
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The effects of vaccination and immunity on bacterial infection dynamics in vivo.

... lasts for about three days and restrains bacterial growth more than in naive controls; and a subsequent phase in which T-cell dependent bacterial killing becomes significant. Assessment of net bacterial numbers alone would not have distinguished the time of transition between these latter two phases as total bacterial loads were relatively stable over ... therefore it is possible that bacterial killing is also responsible for the stochastic prevalence of some bacterial subpopulations over others. Overall our study indicates the superiority of a live attenuated vaccine over a whole-cell killed one in controlling the infection process by suppressing bacterial growth, exerting bacterial killing and achieving ... animals. Mathematical modelling and estimation of the rates of bacterial killing and division in the spleen and liver The enhanced reduction in total bacterial numbers, the fluctuations in the WITS population structure and the disappearance of WITS from the spleen and liver indicated that the overall dynamics of bacterial division and death are different in naive
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Effects of antibiotic on the bacterial microflora in two commercially important catfish species, Clarias batrachus and Heteropneustes fossilis in Bangladesh

... Day 16 Day 18 Day 20 Shingi gill Magur gill Figure 2. Changes in bacterial load of shingi and magur fish gill (CFU/g). 3.3. Changes in bacterial load in intestine For Day 0 (before treatment) magur, the bacterial load in intestine sample was (7.36依0.51)伊107 CFU/g. Bacterial load of intestine sample was increased [(9.13依0.10)伊107 CFU/g] ... and lowest bacterial load in intestine sample was (9.5依0.2)伊107 CFU/g on Day 0 (before treatment) and (4.63依0.15)伊107 CFU/g on Day 20 (Figure 3). 2.5 2 3. Results 1.5 Ln (CFU/g) 3.1. Changes in bacterial load in skin For Day 0 (before treatment) magur, the average bacterial load in skin samples was (5.24依0.15)伊106 CFU/cm2. The bacterial ... highest and lowest bacterial load of skin sample was (5.94依0.10)伊106 CFU/cm2 in the Day 8 and (3.56依0.05)伊106 CFU/cm2 in the Day 20 (Figure 1). For Day 0 (before treatment) shingi, the bacterial load in skin sample was (5.60依0.15)伊106 CFU/cm2. The bacterial loads of skin sample were decreased with antibiotic treatment. The lowest bacterial load of skin
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Identification and phylogenetic analysis of heme synthesis genes in trypanosomatids and their bacterial endosymbionts.

... incorporated at least three gammaproteobacterial genes that encode enzymes required for heme biosynthesis. Thus, a horizontal transfer of these genes from a gammaproteobacterial organism to the nuclear genome of the progenitor protozoan probably occurred prior to the event resulting in the stabilization of the betaproteobacterial endosymbiont. In contrast, ... of betaproteobacterial descent for heme synthesis, suggesting that these genes were present in a betaproteobacterial progenitor to the endosymbionts. As previously inferred by nutritional and enzymatic data ([22] and references therein), a number of trypanosomatids exhibit a biochemical arsenal that is complemented by their betaproteobacterial endosymbionts. ... from three different lineages of Gammaproteobacteria (Figs. S3,S4,S5). Therefore, SHTs have two sets of genes for FeCH, one of apparent gammaproteobacterial origin in the nucleus, and another of betaproteobacterial descent in the symbionts. PLoS ONE | 2 August 2011 | Volume 6 | Issue 8 | e23518 Heme Synthesis Genes in Trypanosomatids Table
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The Genomic Sequence of the Oral Pathobiont Strain NI1060 Reveals Unique Strategies for Bacterial Competition and Pathogenicity.

... proteins for bacterial competition and pathogenicity. For instance, we found homologs for the machinery of several secretion systems including type I, II, V and VI, but not III and IV. Importantly, many proteins that are translocated across the outer membrane by type V and VI secretion systems (T5SS and T6SS) are known to be involved in bacterial competition ... ACCESS Citation: Darzi Y, Jiao Y, Hasegawa M, Moon H, Núñez G, Inohara N, et al. (2016) The Genomic Sequence of the Oral Pathobiont Strain NI1060 Reveals Unique Strategies for Bacterial Competition and Pathogenicity. PLoS ONE 11(7): e0158866. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0158866 Editor: Paul J Planet, Columbia University, UNITED STATES Received: September ... involved in lipooligosaccharide synthesis, adhesins and bacteriotoxic proteins. These genes are potentially important for host adaption and for the induction of dysbiosis through bacterial competition and pathogenicity. Importantly, strain NI1060 strongly stimulates Nod1, an innate immune receptor, but is defective in two peptidoglycan recycling genes due
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Bacterial survival amidst an immune onslaught: the contribution of the Staphylococcus aureus leukotoxins.

... Pearls Bacterial Survival Amidst an Immune Onslaught: The Contribution of the Staphylococcus aureus Leukotoxins Francis Alonzo III, Victor J. Torres* Department of Microbiology, New ... cell types imply cellular recognition via unique factors. Thus, inferring direct relationships between the potency of one leukotoxin and Citation: Alonzo F III, Torres VJ (2013) Bacterial Survival Amidst an Immune Onslaught: The Contribution of the Staphylococcus aureus Leukotoxins. PLoS Pathog 9(2): e1003143. doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1003143 Editor: ... functional consequences of toxin activity on specific immune cell types. Upon encountering host immune cells, S. aureus elaborates numerous molecules that facilitate escape from bacterial killing. The bi-component leukotoxins (LukAB, red; HlgCB, green; PVL, gray; HlgAB, purple; LukED, orange) are one class of lytic molecules that directly target and kill
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Steering Evolution with Sequential Therapy to Prevent the Emergence of Bacterial Antibiotic Resistance.

... manuscript. Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. Staphylococcus aureus as well as non? ?bacterial pathogens including malaria and viruses such as HIV. Here, we develop a mathematical model of an evolving bacterial population, which allows us to predict the probability of resistant strains emerging. Using this model we show ... treatments within bacterial pathogens poses an increasing threat to public health, which, coupled with the slowing discovery of novel antibiotics, could soon reach crisis point [1, 2]. Novel classes of antibiotics discovered since 1987 are few in number [3]. Thus, it is becoming ever clearer that if we are to combat highly resistant bacterial infections, ... predictions to predictions of real–world bacterial evolution. The first is that if selection is strong and mutations are rare then there is a possibility of the population being driven to extinction before an adaptive mutation occurs. We have chosen to ignore this possibility within our modeling as in the context of treating bacterial infections this would constitute
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Bacterial viability and physical properties of antibacterially modified experimental dental resin composites.

... The antibacterial effect of materials A to C was significantly increased when compared with ST meaning that significantly less vital cells were found. Conclusion: Dental resin composites with small quantities of a novel antibacterially doped delivery system or with an antibacterial monomer provided acceptable physical properties and good antibacterial ... count was calculated. This behaviour connected with the powerful antibacterial effect (less vital cells than ST) strongly indicated that an antibacterial effect did not necessarily diminish bacterial adhesive forces. As shown by the results for materials B and C the chemistry of the antibacterial ingredient needs also to be considered. Although PLOS ... Although PLOS ONE | 8 November 2013 | Volume 8 | Issue 11 | e79119 Antibacterial Dental Composites Table 5. Means and (standard deviations) of total, vital bacterial and non-vital bacterial pixel-count after 8 h and 24 h observation time. Bacterial count [pixel x 106] Overall (n=60) A. naeslundii (n=12) A. viscosus (n=12)
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Ultralong C100 mycolic acids support the assignment of Segniliparus as a new bacterial genus.

... Whereas mycobacterial mycolate subclasses are distinguished from one another by R groups on the meromycolate chain, Segniliparus species synthesize solely nonoxygenated a-mycolates with high levels of cis unsaturation. Unexpectedly Segniliparus a-mycolates diverge into three subclasses based on large differences in carbon chain length with one bacterial ... Practical Approach; J. S, U. S, editors. Eynsham, Oxford. USA: Oxford University Press. 264 p. 15. Minnikin DE (1998) Isolation and purification of mycobacterial wall lipids. In: Hancock IC, Poxton IR, editors. Bacterial Cell Surface Techniques. Chichester: Wiley. 125–135. 16. Goodfellow M, Collins MD, Minnikin DE (1976) Thin-layer chromatographic analysis ... and folding into a membrane. Citation: Hong S, Cheng T-Y, Layre E, Sweet L, Young DC, et al. (2012) Ultralong C100 Mycolic Acids Support the Assignment of Segniliparus as a New Bacterial Genus. PLoS ONE 7(6): e39017. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0039017 Editor: Je´roˆ me Nigou, French National Centre for Scientific Research - Universite´ de Toulouse, France Received
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Responses of bacterial communities in arable soils in a rice-wheat cropping system to different fertilizer regimes and sampling times.

... between bacterial community and soil properties. The RDA (redundancy analysis) biplot clearly showed the relationship between soil characteristics and bacterial community structure (Fig. 2). The first two axes of RDA can explain 15.0% and 6.67% of the total variation in the data. The June bacterial communities were grouped separately from the October bacterial ... in bacterial community structures. Discussion The present study attempts to assess the effect of fertilizer regime and sampling time on bacterial communities in a ricewheat cropping system. The results demonstrate that both fertilizer treatment and season were found to impact soil chemical parameters, microbial biomass, bacterial abundance and bacterial ... variation in bacterial community structure. In conclusion, fertilizer practice and seasonal changes can affect soil properties, microbial biomass, and bacterial community structure. We observed a significant and distinct seasonal shift for bacterial community while the fertilizer type also lead to a significant but much smaller variation in bacterial
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One bacterial cell, one complete genome.

... evolution of metabolic roles in bacterial co-symbionts of insects. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106: 15394–15399. 26. Komaki K, Ishikawa H (1999) Intracellular bacterial symbionts of aphids possess many genomic copies per bacterium. J Mol Evol 48: 717–722. 27. Komaki K, Ishikawa H (2000) Genomic copy number of intracellular bacterial symbionts of aphids ... Candidatus Sulcia muelleri from sharpshooters. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0010314.g002 bacterial surface antigens. Homologs of these proteins participate in outer membrane protein complexes of gram-negative bacteria. The location of this protein and its function suggest a role in the bacterial cell – host interaction. Sequence variation within Sulcia populations ... and insect diversification: an ancient symbiont of sap-feeding insects from the bacterial phylum Bacteroidetes. Appl Environ Microbiol 71: 8802–8810. 23. Wu D, Daugherty SC, Van Aken SE, Pai GH, Watkins KL, et al. (2006) Metabolic complementarity and genomics of the dual bacterial symbiosis of sharpshooters. PLoS Biol 4: e188. PLoS ONE | 7
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Bacterial resistance and bacteriocins action in Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine mastitis.

... p.744-748, 2011 Comunicação [Communication] Resistência bacteriana e ação das bacteriocinas de Lactobacillus spp em Staphylococcus aureus isolados de mastite bovina [Bacterial resistance and bacteriocins action in Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine mastitis] B.R. Pribul1, I.A. Pereira1, L.C. Soares1, S.M.O. Coelho2, I.L. Barberis3,
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Every coin has a back side: invasion by Limnohabitans planktonicus promotes the maintenance of species diversity in bacterial communities.

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Surveillance for bacterial meningitis

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The bacterial flora of venoms and mouth cavities of Costa Rican snakes

... Bull Pan Am Health Organ 14(3), 1980. THE BACTERIAL FLORA COSTA RICAN SNAKES Olga Arroyo,z OF VENOMS AND MOUTH CAVITIES OF R. BolaAos,3 and G. Mufioz4 isolatedfrom the venoms and mouth cavities of Costa Rican snakes suggest that secondary bacterial infection following snakebite is a realpossibility. No one treatment ... of venom were deposited Arroyo et al. . BACTERIAL VENOMS OF COSTA RICAN in 5 to 10 ml of broth: and in those cases where recovery of anaerobic bacteria was attempted, the tubes were exposed to a gentle stream of oxygen-free COP at the time of inoculation in order to maintain anaerobic conditions. The bacterial flora of both venom and mouth cavities (including the ... differentiate between the effects of bacterial infection and those of the venom itself, although there are well-documented reports of concomitant infections. An unpublished review of 85 snakebite cases admitted to Costa Rica’s San Juan de Dios Hospital between 1972 and 1975 reported that 19 per cent of the patients had detectable bacterial infections. Unfortunately, very few
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