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Anticoagulant Drugs

Docking Studies on Anticancer Drugs for Breast Cancer Using Hex

... estrogen receptor and the commercially available drugs against breast cancer. The receptor was docked to the above said drugs and the energy value obtained as follows Tamoxifen (-49.0), Raloxifene (-158.0), Toremifene (-108.0) using the HEX docking software. Depending on the energy values we have chosen the best two drugs they are Raloxifene and Toremifene. ... designing. In the present work we have taken the receptor Human estrogen and identified the drugs that were used against Breast Cancer. When the receptor (2IOK) was docked with the drugs the energy value obtained was; Raloxifene (-158.37), Toremifene( -108.0). When the modified drugs were docked against the same receptor the energy value obtained was Raloxifene ... software. Raloxifene Analog 7 and Toremifene analog 6 were detected with significant energy values and probable lead molecules. The Modified drugs was sketched using Chemsketch were found to be better than the conventional drugs available. Further from this work we can improve the steric compatibility and then ADME/T properties of the Analogs can be analyzed
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iGPCR-drug: a web server for predicting interaction between GPCRs and drugs in cellular networking.

... many diseases such as cancer, diabetes, neurodegenerative, inflammatory and respiratory disorders, GPCRs are among the most frequent targets of therapeutic drugs [4]. Over half of all prescription drugs currently on the market are actually acting by targeting GPCRs PLOS ONE | www.plosone.org 1 August 2013 | Volume 8 | Issue 8 | e72234 Predict GPCR ... a GPCR (protein) and a drug, a combination of the following two approaches were adopted to represent the GPCR{drug pair samples. (a) Representing drugs with 2D molecular fingerprints. Although the number of drugs is extremely large, most are very difficult to crystallize and most of them will not dissolve in normal solvents. Although a series of recent ... structures for most GPCRs are still unknown. To overcome the situation, a sequence-based classifier, called ‘‘iGPCR-drug’’, was developed to predict the interactions between GPCRs and drugs in cellular networking. In the predictor, the drug compound is formulated by a 2D (dimensional) fingerprint via a 256D vector, GPCR by the PseAAC (pseudo amino acid composition) generated
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SWEETLEAD: an in silico database of approved drugs, regulated chemicals, and herbal isolates for computer-aided drug discovery.

... where over 31% of non -drugs have less than 2 rotatable bonds as compared to 13% for approved drugs. Additionally, 93% of the non-approved compounds pass Lipinski’s Rule of 5 with only 1 violation, identical to the 93% mark for approved drugs, which indicates their drug likeness according to that metric. Overall, both the drugs and non -drugs in the SWEETLEAD ... are approved drugs in at least one region and 1427 are FDA approved drugs. 217 of these compounds are scheduled drugs in the United States, and 1625 of the compounds derive from traditional medicinal herbs. Some compounds can be multiply classified, such as methamphetamine and codeine which are both approved therapeutics and scheduled drugs. Reflecting the ... accurate chemical structures of approved drugs. Using an automated tool, we queried several free, public, and well-used chemical databases for reported structures of approved drugs and employed these structures in a consensus building scheme to identify the true structure for every approved drug. In addition to approved drugs, we include the structures of
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FORMULATION AND DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES FOR DRUGS INSOLUBLE IN GASTRIC FLUID

... medication includes liquid lipophilic drugs and drug suspensions or solutions of solid water insoluble drugs in suitable non-volatile solvent systems. Liquisolid systems refers to powdered forms of liquid medications formulated by converting liquid lipophilic drugs, or drug suspensions or solutions of water insoluble solid drugs in suitable non-volatile solvent ... major challenges in oral delivery of new drug substances. Orally administered drugs on the Model list of Essential Medicines of the World Health Organization (WHO) are assigned BCS classifications on the basis of data available in the public domain 2. Of the 130 orally administered drugs on the WHO list, could be classified with certainty. 84% of these belong ... reducing the particle size, the increased surface area improves the dissolution properties of the drug. Micronization of drugs is done by milling techniques using jet mill, rotor stator colloid mills etc. Micronization is not suitable for drugs having a high dose number because it does not change the saturation solubility of the drug 46. Nanosuspension is
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Efficacy and safety of oral antidiabetic drugs in comparison to insulin in treating gestational diabetes mellitus: a meta-analysis.

... Efficacy and Safety of Oral Antidiabetic Drugs in Comparison to Insulin in Treating Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: A Meta-Analysis Nalinee Poolsup1, Naeti Suksomboon2*, Muhammad Amin2 1 Department of Pharmacy, Faculty ... Nakhon-Pathom, Thailand, 2 Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand Abstract Objective: To assess the efficacy and safety of oral antidiabetic drugs (OADs) in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in comparison to insulin. Methods: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials was conducted. The efficacy and safety of ... insulin and a better choice than glyburide especially those with mild form of disease. Citation: Poolsup N, Suksomboon N, Amin M (2014) Efficacy and Safety of Oral Antidiabetic Drugs in Comparison to Insulin in Treating Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: A Meta-Analysis. PLoS ONE 9(10): e109985. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0109985 Editor: Marta L. Hribal, University
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How Antiparasitic Drugs Work-And Sometimes Stop Working!

... RESEARCH MATTERS How Antiparasitic Drugs Work—And Sometimes Stop Working! David Horn* Division of Biological Chemistry and Drug Discovery, School of Life Sciences, University of Dundee, Dundee, United Kingdom * d.horn@dundee.ac.uk a11111 OPEN ACCESS Citation: Horn D (2016) How Antiparasitic Drugs Work—And Sometimes Stop Working! PLoS Pathog 12(5): ... antiparasitic drugs are constantly threatened by obsolescence in the “arms race” between us and the parasites. In the hope of helping to gain the upper hand in this race, we adapted a genetic screening approach that allows us to survey every parasite gene for roles in drug action and drug resistance. This revealed >50 new genes linked to drugs in clinical ... screening approach that allows us to survey every parasite gene for roles in drug action and drug resistance. This revealed >50 new genes linked to drugs in clinical use. The drugs nifurtimox and eflornithine, for example, are widely used as a combination therapy. PLOS Pathogens | DOI:10.1371/journal.ppat.1005430 May 5, 2016 1/3 We confirmed that
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EFECTOS DE LOS MEDICAMENTOS CARDIOVASCULARES SOBRE EL GLOBO OCULAR / Effects of cardiovascular drugs on the eyeball

... Oftalmopatías/ etiología, Oftalmopatías/ inducido químicamente. Effects of cardiovascular drugs on the eyeball ABSTRACT Introduction and Objective: There is a high incidence of cardiovascular conditions among the patients who visit the ophthalmology offices, and many of drugs used for RNPS 2235-145 © 2009-2013 Cardiocentro “Ernesto Che Guevara”, Villa Clara, ... this research was to determine the adverse reactions caused by the consumption of these drugs in the visual organ, and highlight their contraindications in people affected by eye disease. Method: A literature search was performed using specialized texts, and the drugs that could produce ocular adverse reactions were identified, as well as those that ... associated with the use of cardiovascular drugs. The six medications that are contraindicated in these patients are exposed, as well as the 14 that should be prescribed with extreme caution in diseases such as glaucoma, optic atrophy, hypertensive retinopathy and migraine, among others. Conclusions: It was found that 72 drugs (26.08%) used in cardiovascular
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Sodium montmorillonite/amine-containing drugs complexes: new insights on intercalated drugs arrangement into layered carrier material.

... slow release of protonable drugs. Herein, we describe the intercalation of several amine-containing drugs with Na-MMT so we can derive a better understanding of how these drugs molecules interact with and distribute throughout the Na-MMT interlayer space. Therefore, for this purpose nine sodium montmorillonite/ amine-containing drugs complexes (Na-MMT/drug) ... physicochemical properties of the drugs molecules in combination with different experimental conditions were assessed to determine how these factors influenced experimental outcomes (e.g. increase of the interlayer spacing versus drugs arrangement and orientation). We also performed a molecular modeling study of these amine-containing drugs associated with different ... study we analyzed the intercalation of amine-containing drugs in Na-MMT using experimental assays and molecular dynamics simulations. This approach allowed us to correlate the molecular orientation of amine-containing drugs with the amount of basal spacing found in Na-MMT. Amine-Containing Drugs Intercalation into Na-MMT Characterization of the
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New Inhibitors of the DENV-NS5 RdRp from Carpolepis laurifolia as Potential Antiviral Drugs for Dengue Treatment

... SHORT REPORT Rec. Nat. Prod. 8:3 (2014) 286-289 New Inhibitors of the DENV-NS5 RdRp from Carpolepis laurifolia as Potential Antiviral Drugs for Dengue Treatment Paul Coulerie1, Alexandre Maciuk2, Cécilia Eydoux3, Edouard Hnawia1, Nicolas Lebouvier1, Bruno Figadère2, Jean-Claude Guillemot3 and Mohammed Nour *1 1Laboratoire
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The prescribing of psychotropic drugs in mental health services in Trinidad

... drug. Antidepressant drugs were the class of psychotropic drugs most prescribed (79 of 132 patients, or 59.8%), followed by antipsychotic drugs (67 of 132 patients, 50.8%). Benzodiazepines were prescribed to 9.1% of the patients (12 of 132), while the anticholinergic drugs represented 15.2% (20 of 132). Among the antidepressant drugs, tricyclic antidepressants ... using two or more drugs, either more than one psychotropic or a combination of psychotropic(s) and nonpsychotropic(s). Of these 83 patients, 63 of them were using either two or three drugs concomitantly, 17 of them were using four or five drugs, and 3 of them were using six or more drugs. Out of this group of patients using two or more drugs concomitantly, ... using nonpsychotropic drugs. Of these 51, 41 of them were using drugs prescribed by another physician, that is, not the psychiatrist at the clinic. In addition, 15 of the 51 were self-medicating, according to their self-reporting. In terms of the groups of nonpsychotropic drugs used concomitantly, 209 TABLE 2. Use of psychotropic drugs, by ethnicity,
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Genotypic resistance mutations to antiretroviral drugs in HIV-1 B and non-B subtypes from Cuba

... prevalence of resistance mutations to RTIs and PIs reflects the delay in introducing these drugs to Cuba. Multidrug resistance to RTIs was not found, so, as of now, the use of these drugs continues to be an option for Cuban patients. Key words HIV, AIDS, antiretroviral drugs, drug resistance, Cuba. AIDS Research Laboratory, Microbiology Department, Havana, ... is the case of Venezuela (17) and of Argentina,6 indicating that these drugs have been recently introduced in these two countries. The remaining country included in the UNAIDS study, Brazil, shows higher resistance prevalence values, probably due to an earlier and more extended use of the drugs. All the 13 patients in whom a T215Y/F mutation was found had ... Genotypic resistance mutations to antiretroviral drugs in HIV-1 B and non-B subtypes from Cuba Ignacio J. Ruibal-Brunet, 1 M. Teresa Cuevas,2 Héctor Díaz-Torres,1 M. Luisa Villahermosa, 2 Enrique Noa-Romero,1 Elena Vázquez de
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Selection of two governments from the region of the Americas to the WHO management advisory committee of the action program on essential drugs

... ACTION CSP23/20 (Eng.) 24 July 1990 ORIGINAL: ENGLISH REGION OF THE AMERICAS TO PROGRAM ON ESSENTIAL DRUGS The objective of the WHO Action Program on Essential Drugs (DAP), established in 1981, is to support Member States in ensuring the regular supply of essential drugs of acceptable quality and low cost to help achieve the goal of Health for All by the Year ... Management responsibilities Action Programme Director-General the ON ESSENTIAL Advisory (Eng.) DRUGS Committee Advisory Committee (MAC) represents the interests of WHO's external partners collaborating with WHO in on Essential Drugs. It acts as an advisory body to of WHO, making recommendations on matters related to the policy, strategy, finance, management, monitoring the WHO's Action Programme on Essential Drugs (DAP). and evaluation of Functions - ... and Management. The Division also includes other Programs concerned with medicinal products: Pharmaceuticals, Biologicals, Traditional Medicine, and Psychotropic and Narcotic Drugs. The integration of all drug-related programs is intended to provide for greater balance in the emphasis laid upon the various elements of WHO's Revised Drug Strategy. At
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Control of drugs in a university hospital surgical ward

... prescribed, requisitioned, issued, and administered to patients at the women’s surgical ward of the Valle University Hospital, 14 May-14 June 1981. Value of drugs (in US) Drugsprescribed Drugsrequisitioned Drugsissued Drugs administeredto patients %of pES~lZS~ 1,091&i 1.303.07 927.17 100 119 84 659.92 60 Quantity prescribed: The quantity prescribed by the doctor, ... regarding administration of drugs to patients at the women’s surgical ward of the Valle University Hospital, 14 May-14 June, 1981. Drugs authorized Use of drugs Vallle UJSS) Administeredto ward patients Not administeredto ward patients Total % of total WlW 659.92 60 431.52 40 1,091.44 100 Table 5. The value (in US$) of the drugs prescribed, requisitioned, ... patients by their doctors. Pe’rez et al. 253 rn CONTROL OF DRUGS IN A HOSPITAL SETTING Table 2. Initial survey: Compliance with physician’s instructions regarding administration of drugs to patients at the women’s surgical ward of the Valle University Hospital, May 1980. Drugs authorized Use of drugs ValW WSS) Administered to ward patients Not administered
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Policies for the production and marketing of essential drugs: discussion guide

... September 1983 ORIGINAL: ENGLISH POLICIES FOR THE PRODUCTION AND MARKETING OF ESSENTIAL DRUGS Discussion Guide 1. What mechanisms can be employed by Member Governments, private industry and international organizations to support the objective of making essential drugs available to the majority of the population at an affordable price? 2. Under what ... a desirable alternative? 3. How can the financial, logistical, and cultural obstacles effective distribution of essential drugs best be overcome? 4. How can Member Countries evaluate the impact of policies and programs related to essential drugs? 5. What short- and long-term activities are open to PAHO, Member Governments, and private industry to improve
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Policies for the production and marketing of essential drugs: program

... Technical avf-IN X 6··SAN~a: Discussions INDEXED Washington, D.C. September-October 1983 Provisional Agenda Item 18 CD29/DT/3 (Eng.) 20 September 1983 ORIGINAL: ENGLISH POLICIES FOR THE PRODUCTION AND MARKETING OF ESSENTIAL DRUGS Program 30 September 1983 9:00 a.m. FIRST PLENARY SESSION Opening--Moderator of the Technical Discussions 9:15 a.m. Keynote Address--Dr. Gary Gereffi 10:00 a.m. Description
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Report of the technical discussions on the impact of drugs on health costs: national and international problems

... need. Basic Drugs _2/ The participants recognized the importance of drugs in the protection and restoration of health. Special emphasis should be given to essential or basic drugs which are those most needed for the health care of the majority of the population. These drugs must be readily available to all. The main purposes of using a list of basic drugs ... and other forms of promotion, including prohibition of promotion to the public of certain categories of drugs or of drugs for certain diseases; - lists of basic drugs and/or drugs to be provided plan or through reimbursement schemes; - prices of drugs; - import - regulatory and export; action through the health -. and and legal penalties. RECOMMENDATIONS The_prking Group ... the use of "mood" drugs, as well as "fads" or poorly founded beliefs in the efficacy of such d_ug products as tonics and high-potency vitamins. Also_ physicians tend to prescribe unnecessary drugs. One of the serious problems to be addressed by a national drug policy is the disparity between the frequently inadequate provision of drugs essential to
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CD23.R32: Basic drugs program

...   27th SESSION OF THE REGIONAL COMMITTEE Washington D.C., 29 September – 8 October 1975 RESOLUTION CD23.R32 BASIC DRUGS PROGRAM THE 23rd DIRECTING COUNCIL, Considering that a large sector of the population has difficulty in procuring drugs because the production and marketing system utilized results in high costs which make them inaccessible to the majority; Taking ... experience of the Government of Peru over the past four years in the implementation of the Basic Drugs Program, which has aroused the evident interest of several countries; Recognizing the urgent need to bring about a reduction in the price of high-quality drugs, in order to put them within the reach of the socially and economically less privileged population; ... taken into account with a view to reducing the cost of drugs, RESOLVES 1. To take note of the statement made by the Representative of Peru. 2. To draw the attention of Member Governments to the desirability of carrying out an analysis of local factors that might contribute to reducing the cost of drugs without sacrificing quality. 3. To request the Director
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Peruvian basic drugs program

... DIRECTOR PERMANENT COMMISSION OF BASIC DRUGS EXECUTIVE OFFICE SECTORS OR DIVISIONS CD23/29 Page 4 (Eng.) 4 STRUCTURAL ORGANIZATIONAL CHART OF THE PROGRAM OF BASIC DRUGS 1974 MINISTER OF HEALTH REVIEWING COMMISSIOS OF THE OFFICIAL REQUISITION FOR BASIC DRUGS EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR I1 II PERMANENT COMMISSION OF BASIC DRUGS 1 EXECUTIVE OFFICE I 1 SUPERVISOR ACCOUNTANT I SECTION ... the users for the normal development of the Program of Basic Drugs. 41 v w MEASURES OF CONTROL OF BASIC DRUGS NATIONAL INSTITUTE CUSTOMS OF HEALTH ~~~/ I I I LABORATORIES / / I K---- EXECUTIVE / OFFICE OF BASIC DRUGS AP) -DjID PERCENTAGE OF REDUCTION OF THE COST OF BASIC DRUGS Price at Pharmacy Product Erythromycin caps. Chloramphenicol ... laboratories that supply the drugs. 19. Submission Forms For the best functioning of the Program of Basic Drugs, there are 11 submission forms which are used by all the consumers at a national level. They are as follows: Form MB-O1 Monthly Report on the Consumption of Basic Drugs. Form MB-14 Requisition for Additional Drugs from the Supplying Laboratories. Form
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List of drugs scheduled to appear in the Pharmacopoea Internationalis

... Sagrada Calciferol Gloconato de calcio Lactato de calcio Carbacol Carbarsón Bióxido de carbono Tetracloruro de carbono Cáscara sagrada 413 French Index 414 BULLETIN OF THE PAN AMERICAN LIST OF DRUGS Latin Names Chiniofonum Chlorali Hydras Chloroformium Anaesthesicum Chloroquini Diphosphas Cocaini Hydrochloridum Cocaini Nitras Cocainum Codeini Phosphas Codeinum Coffeinum Coffeinum ... Hydrobromidum (Syn. Scopolamini Hydrobromidum) Precipitated Mercurous Chloride Mercury Hyoscyamus Herb Hyoscyamus Muticus Herb (Syn. Egyptian Henbane) Hysocine Hydrobromide Abril IN TEE 415 DRUGS mio] PHARMACOPOEA French Index INTERNATIONALIS Spanish Kht.) Index Chionofon Hydrate de chloral Chloroforme Biphosphate de chloroquine Chlorhydrate de cocaine Nitrate ... d’Egypte Mercurio Beleño Beleño de Egipto Bromhydrate Bromhidrato de scopolamine Cloruro mercurioso precipitado de escopolamina 416 BULLETIN OF THE PAN AMERICAN LIST OF DRUGS SANITARY SCHEDULED BUREAU TO APPEAR EnglZsh Index Latin Names Injectio Oxytocini Injectio Pituitarii Posterioris Injection Injection Injectio Vasopressini Iodum Ipecacuanhae
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Evaluation of new drugs in the treatment of Rickettsial diseases

... selección de los trabajos in toto o compendiados. sólo los autores son solidiwios de las vertidas. a menos que conste espl&itamente lo contrario ophiones Enero de 1949 No. OF NEW DRUGS IN THE TREATMENT RICKIXTTSIAL DISEASES* By J. E. i%ADEL, 1 OF M.D. Department of Virus and Rickettsial Diseases, Army Medical Department, Research und Graduate Xchool, ... treating certain bacteria1 complications which develop in rickettsial infections. We shall return later in the talk to a discussion of the newer antibiotics. A large number of drugs were tested for their activity in the rickettsioses during and immediately prior to the war years. These fe11into severa1 broad groups including the sulfonamides, the acridines
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Response to short-course chemotherapy of patients with initial resistance to antituberculosis drugs

... of: Onemonth Twomonths (2.9) (8.4) ; a Amongthe patientswith infectionsrenderedinactive. TABLE6. Impact of initfal resistanceto one or more of the drugs used upon the effectivenessof treatment. Initialsensitivity of infections Sensitive Resistant to oneor moredrugs Total Successful treatments (infectionrendered inactive,no relapse) Treatment failures Total Relapses No. (%I No. (%I No. (%) No. 1,696 (95.3) 11 (0.6) 74 (4.1) 1,781 (100.0) 163 1,859 (86.3) (94.3) 16 27 (8.4) (1.4) IO 84 (5.3) (4.3) 189 (100.0) 1,970 (100.0) overvalued; ... the beginning of treatment-in terms of the failures and relapses occurring among patients with sensitive and resistant strains; 0 to evaluate the respective roles of two major drugs, streptomycin and isoniazid, in the genesis of failures and relapses; and . to determine whether or not there were differences in the responsesof patients with primary resistance ... short-course(SC)treatmentregimensprovided fur the six groups 01study subjects. The numbers after the letters “SC” indicatethe year when each regimen was first instituted among the study subjects. The drugs employedare indicatedas follows: S = streptomycin: H = isoniazid; R = rilampin; and 2 = pyrazinamide. Identifyingcode SC-78 SC-80 SC-81 SC-82 s 2 .,$ PI % a : 3 176 SC-84 Regimen9 2SHW/4S2H2R2b 2SHRZ/4S2H& 2SHRZ/4S2H2 2SHRZ/5S2H2Z2 i
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Essential drugs revolving fund for Central America and Panama

... purchases made by the countries. 313 Selection of Drugs In the initial phase of the project, 16 essential drugs were selected on the basis of the following criteria: l l l l l The small number of basic drugs used to treat diseasesthat are prevalent in the population should be included. The drugs should be part of specific health care programs ... supply and quality control systems, promoting national production of drugs, supporting the formulation of national drug policies and their standardization throughout the subregion, and setting up a revolving fund for the joint purchase of essential drugs. The availability and use of drugs in Central American countries is limited by numerous socioeconomic, ... others. They should be single drugs of good quality and recognized effectiveness. Their purchase should represent a sizable public sector expenditure and/ or consumption and utilization of foreign exchange. They should be listed in the latest report of the WHO Expert Committee on Essential Drugs. In addition to the selected essential drugs, FORMED covers the
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Prevalence of the improper use of alcohol, tobacco, and drugs in the Ecuadorian population

... psychotropic drugs (for example, 16% reported using tranquilizers at least once). The percentages using the same drugs illegally, without prescription, were lower (for example, 4% in the case of tranquilizers), and the percentages reporting use of outlawed drugs were also small (the respective percentages reporting use of marijuana, inhalants, native plant drugs, ... respectively), and the percentages acknowledging use of outlawed drugs (marijuana-4%, inhalants-2%, native plant drugs- l%, cocaine-l%, and cocaine base-l%) were also low. The criteria used for estimating addiction to the various substances were exclusively quantitative. That is, a person using psychotropic drugs daily was considered addicted, as was a person who ... substance and form of consumption. The results showed that the drugs used by the most survey subjects at least once in their lives (that is, with the highest lifetime user prevalences) were alcohol (used by 75%) and tobacco (used by 54%). Far smaller percentages indicated they had used psychotropic drugs. In all, the percentages acknowledging use of medically
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Fixed combinations of antibiotic drugs used in Central America

... F IXED COMBINATIONS OF ANTIBIOTIC DRUGS USED IN CENTRAL AMERICA1 Fededco Guerrero-M&ox2 I NTRODUCTION Antibiotics are among the drugs most prescribed by physicians in medical practice. It is also true, however, that increasing bacterial resistance to many of these drugs has been observed in recent years, a phenomenon that ... worthwhile drugs. The authors therefore suggest that manufacturers be required to place in the Diccionario all information about each of their antibiotics that is contained in the Physicians’ Desk Reference. They also recommend that the health authorities involved devise regulations to improve manufacturing standards and regulate access to these drugs, ... However, Upjohn does not have this formulation listed as one of its products in the Physicians ’ De.& Reference, where it merely lists products containing one or the other of these drugs. Similarly, Lederle has registered a combination of tetracycline, salicylamide, acetophenetidine, phenylephrine, and chlorpheniramine in Central America under the brand name “Acropon,”
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PRIMARY RESISTANCE TO ANTITUBERCULOSIS DRUGS IN CHILE, 1978

... Resistance to Antituberculosis Drugs in Chile, 1978 The Tuberculosis Department of Chile's Bacteriology Institute, in its capacity as national reference laboratory in its field, contributes to epidemiologic surveys and periodically determines the primary resistance of Mycobacrerium tuberculosis to the first-line antibacterial drugs. In 1978, a total of ... studied 1963-1964 1965-1966 1967-1968 1969 1970 1971 1975 1976 1978 80.1 85.1 86.4 88.6 87.2 88.6 89.9 88.3 90.4 19.9 176 14.9 403 13.6 358 13.4 356 12.8 11.4 1,352 10.1 1,20 11.7 925 9.6 1,b')94 first-line drugs (streptomycin, isoniazid-para-aminosalicylic acid, and thiacetazone) are shown in Table 1. According to the results indicated above, no strains were found that were resistant only to PAS or to TBI; nor was resistance detected to combinations of drugs other than those reported in Table 1. Two strains ... PAS or to TBI; nor was resistance detected to combinations of drugs other than those reported in Table 1. Two strains were resistant to INH+PAS+TBI, and four to the other four drugs (EM+INH+PAS+TBi), but all were strains of atypical mycobacteria. The figures for resistance ranged from 7.7 to 13.8 per cent in the various health regions and areas studied; however,
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