Ambient Factors Of Risk

Expression of fibroblast growth factor-21 in muscle is associated with lipodystrophy, insulin resistance and lipid disturbances in patients with HIV.

... Expression of Fibroblast Growth Factor-21 in Muscle Is Associated with Lipodystrophy, Insulin Resistance and Lipid Disturbances in Patients with HIV Birgitte Lindegaard1,2,3*, Thine Hvid1,2, Thomas Grøndahl1,2, Christian Frosig2,4, Jan Gerstoft3, Pernille Hojman1,2,3, Bente Klarlund Pedersen1,2,3 1 Centre of Inflammation and Metabolism, Department of Infectious ... Centre, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark, 3 Department of Infectious Diseases, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark, 4 Institute of Exercise and Sport Sciences, Department of Human Physiology, Copenhagen, Denmark Abstract Background: Fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-21 is a novel regulator of glucose and lipid metabolism. Recently, increased FGF-21 ... subjects. Compared to controls, HIV subjects demonstrated a twofold increase of plasma FGF-21 from 70.4656.8 pg/ml vs 109.1671.8 pg/ml, respectively (p = 0.04) and an eight-fold increase in muscular FGF-21 mRNA expression (p = 0.001). Muscle FGF-21 mRNA correlated inversely with the rate of disappearance of glucose during insulin clamp (r = 20.54, p = 0.0009),
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The Divergent Intracellular Lifestyle of Francisella tularensis in Evolutionarily Distinct Host Cells.

... Intracellular Lifestyle of Francisella tularensis in Evolutionarily Distinct Host Cells Mateja Ozanic1, Valentina Marecic1, Yousef Abu Kwaik2, Marina Santic1* 1 Department of Microbiology and Parasitology, University of Rijeka, Medical faculty, Rijeka, Croatia, 2 Department of Microbiology and Immunology and Center for Predictive Medicine, College of Medicine, ... Grant of University of Rijeka (Grant No. 811.10.1111). YAK is supported by Public Health Service Award 1R01AI120244 and R21AI116517 from the National Institute of Health and by the Commonwealth of Kentucky Research Challenge Trust Fund. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the ... disasters, climate change, and global warming will probably have an impact on increased incidences of tularemia [9]. The Role of T6SS in Intracellular Replication Understanding the virulence factors of Francisella is indispensable for elucidating various aspects of tularemia pathogenesis. Many studies have been focused on a genomic region called the Francisella
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Reduction of canine plasminogen leads to an expanded molecule which precipitates.

... version of the first 60 minutes of the reaction. K2HPO4 was used to adjust the pH of the TCEP. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0006196.g002 the particles in solution can be related to the size of the particles and is dependent only on the diffusion coefficients of the particles and the viscosity of the medium containing the particles. In the main panel of Figure ... in the presence of the reductant. The intermediate was maintained until there was major aggregation. In addition, whereas the Stokes’ radius of native plasminogen in the absence of an opening ligand was close to 4 nm, the size of the intermediate was significantly larger than that of the native, closed, protein. The rate and persistence of the intermediate ... 4 | Issue 7 | e6196 Reduction of Plasminogen Figure 3. The influence of ANS on the dynamic light scattering of 1 mM DPGN in the presence of 10 mM (pH adjusted) TCEP. The solid squares are in the presence of 20 mM ANS whereas the solid circles are in its absence. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0006196.g003 spectra of the three aromatic amino acids
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A Household Level Analysis of Water Sanitation Associated with Gastrointestinal Disease in an Urban Slum Setting of South Okkalapa Township, Myanmar

... severity of the disease consisted of 12 questions about the number of family members, age, gender, marital status, educational level, onset of gastrointestinal disease and its symptoms. The socio-economic characteristics section was composed of 11 questions, concerning occupation and family income per month, family members, and their properties. Knowledge of ... the factors that related to gastrointestinal disease occurrence, and the prevalence of household water related to gastrointestinal diseases. The understanding of, and perception about water hygiene and sanitation, and its relationship with the occurrence of gastrointestinal diseases in slum settings will be useful for Local Government, Ministry of Health ... 5 lists the seven significant variables as occupation, employment status, types of household toilet, sources of household water, method of water storage, fly/vector control habit, and methods of fly control (p-value
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Introduction: Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon2014/5)

... (ARM) Climate Research Facility, a user facility of the United States Department of Energy, Of? ??ce of Science, sponsored by the Of? ??ce of Biological and Environmental Research, and support from the Atmospheric System Research (ASR) program of that of? ??ce. Funding was obtained from the United States Department of Energy (DOE), the Amazonas State Research Foundation ... n/a Description Forested site upwind of Manaus, 325 m tall tower (inaugurated Aug 2015) Pasture site north of Manaus Closed canopy, forested site north of Manaus Broken canopy, forested site north of Manaus On INPA campus in Manaus Ponta Pelada Airport (PLL) Adjacent to river, just downwind of Manaus; river width of 7.5 to 11.7 km depending on direction of prevailing winds ... (2010). At that time, the plume consisted of high concentrations of oxides of sulfur, oxides of nitrogen, submicron aerosol particles, and soot, among other pollutants. Ozone was produced by photochemical reactions in the plume (Trebs et al., 2012). The width of the urban plume was 20 to 25 km, on the order of the size of the city itself. 3 Mesoscale and
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Europium nanoparticle-based high performing immunoassay for the screening of treponemal antibodies.

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Modelling multi-phase halogen chemistry in the coastal marine boundary layer: investigation of the relative importance of local chemistry vs. long-range transport

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Interaction pattern of Arg 62 in the A-pocket of differentially disease-associated HLA-B27 subtypes suggests distinct TCR binding modes.

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Microbial contamination of disinfectants and antiseptics in four major hospitals in Trinidad

... It is worrisome that 41.7% of the 24 isolates in our study were resistant to gentamicin and that 100% of them were resistant to ceftriaxone. In Trinidad and Tobago one of the quinolones, ciprofloxacin, is the first line of oral therapy for Pseudomonas infections. Of the 24 isolates in our study, 58.3% of them were resistant to ciprofloxacin, again emphasizing ... following subjects: types of disinfectants/antiseptics used, methods of preparation of disinfectants/antiseptics, conditions under which disinfectants/antiseptics are prepared, identification of potential sources of contamination, staff responsible for preparation and dilution of disinfectants/antiseptics, and potential use of disinfectants/antiseptics ... disinfectant/antiseptic and by level. All 60 samples of methylated spirit studied were free of aerobic bacterial contaminants. However, 2 of the 60 samples of chlorhexidine gluconate (3.3%) were positive for aerobic bacteria, and 9 of the 60 samples of chlorhexidine gluconate and cetrimonium bromide were positive. The contamination of the 2 chlorhexidine gluconate samples
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The regulation of privacy and data protection in the use of electronic health information: an international perspective and reference source on regulatory and legal issues related to person-identifiable health database

... Pan American Health Organization, 2001 Publications? ?of? ?the Pan American Health Organization enjoy copyright protection in accordance with the provisions? ?of? ?Protocol 2? ?of? ?the Universal Copyright Convention. All rights  reserved. The designations employed and the presentation? ?of? ?the material in this publication  do not imply the expression  of? ?any opinion whatsoever  on the  part? ?of? ?the  Secretariat  of? ?the  ... collection  of? ? records  that  can  be created,  updated,  sorted,  removed, searched, and subject  to a number? ?of? ? logical operations. A database  allows  the storage? ?of multiple  pieces? ?of? ?information  (data items)  in one file, instead? ?of using  several  files  for  each  data  item.  Normally  a  database contains many fields? ?of? ?data. One can think  of? ?a field as a place in which  ... by a database? ?of? ?guidelines and the legal  implications  of? ?the mainstream  introduction  and  use  of? ? clinical  decision­support  software are many and far­reaching. Concerns  raised involve questions  such as: 14 Conceptual Framework •  When  does the amount? ?of? ?automated "clinical  thinking" done  by the  software application  constitute "practice  of medicine" 
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The shape of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Puerto Rico

... one or both parents have a history of drug use or of risky sexual activities. These families have multiple needs and will often have to rely on external sources of assistance (31). In most countries around the world the majority of new HIV infections occur in people between the ages of 15 and 24, often resulting from risky sexual behaviors. It has been ... Juan had the smallest of those declines (5). The objective of the present study is to present information on AIDS patients in Puerto Rico, including a general sociodemographic profile, riskrelated parameters, and characteristics of groups that are particularly vulnerable. The study also covers elements of the clinical spectrum of the disease. For our ... Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, Puerto Rico AIDS Surveillance Program; 1999. 7. Perez-Perdomo R, Suarez E, Perez-Cardona C, Morales A. Epidemiologic profile of HIV/ AIDS in Puerto Rico: 1981–1996. Mexico, D.F.: University of Puerto Rico and Glaxo Wellcome; 1998 8. Gomez MA, Velazquez M, Hunter RF. Outline of the Human Retrovirus Registry: profile of a Puerto
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Efficiency of hospital cholera treatment in Ecuador

... the lack of data available on purchase prices and dates) and then depreciating that at a rate of 14% a year, up to a maximum of 70%. These values were then converted into April 1994 (the start date of the project) sucres on the basis of the cumulative inflation rates in each of the cities between the date of the inventory and the beginning of the project. ... costs. Capital costs were determined on the basis of the present value of hospital buildings, land, and medical and other equipment. It is worth noting that the research concentrated on the factors that affected the efficiency of in-hospital cholera treatment from the point of view of the providers of the service, in this case the MPH and the hospitals. For ... example of a clear pattern of indiscriminate use of IV rehydration therapy, regardless of the severity of the dehydration. This pattern could be due to: • the absence of clear, adequately disseminated treatment norms, coupled with poor diagnoses, leading to excess demand for laboratory tests and overcautious treatment. This is aggravated by the lack of
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Ecology of Vibrio cholerae serogroup 01 in aquatic environments

... expedite dissemination and reproduction of the pathogenic microorganism in aquatic environments (39). A laboratory study by Tamplin et al. (37) in Bangladesh indicated that five strains of V. cholerae 01 of clinical origin (three of the classic biotype and two of the El Tor biotype) adhered primarily to the exoskeleton of copepods (Acartia sp., Acartia chilkaensis, ... is capable of detecting viable but nonculturable vibrios, revealed strains of V. cholerae 01 (of unresearched biotype and toxigenicity) in 64% of plankton specimens collected from water at the mouth of the Ganges and Meghna rivers in Bangladesh, even during the interepidemic periods (13). In contrast, when culture methods were used, only 0.3% of plankton ... can harbor the microorganism and thus contribute to the endemic nature of this disease, it is essential to understand the ecology of V. cholerae. ECOLOGY OF VIBRIO CHOLERAE SEROGROUP 01 Abiotic factors Water. V. cholerae, including its toxigenic strains (5, 11, 12, 22, 23), has often been isolated from aquatic environments such as bays (5), rivers (11,
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Amendments to the staff rules of the Pan American Sanitary Bureau

... Governing Bodies of PAHO has been to maintain the salary of the Director at the same level as that of the Deputy Director-General of WHO. CE107/14, Page 2 ADD. T (Eng.) The XXMeeting of the Directing Council, in operative paragraph 2 of Resolution XX, requested "the Executive Committee, in case of any future adjustments in respect of professional and ... review. One of these amendments concerns the consolidation of five multiplier points of post adjustment into the net base salaries for the professional and higher graded posts. A consequential adjustment in the salaries of ungraded posts should likewise be considered. At the time of preparation of document CE107/14 the corresponding rates of salaries for ungraded ... maintained at the same official station at the initiative of the Bureau, the payment of the mobility element of the allowance may be extended for a further period of one year. The non-removal element of the allowance is payable at official stations in categories A to E as long as the staff member is not entitled to a removal of household goods under
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Salary of the Director of the Pan American Sanitary Bureau

... been to maintain the salary of the Director of PASB at the same level as that of the Deputy Director-General of WHO. The XX Meeting of the Directing Council, in operative paragraph 2 of Resolution XX, requested "the Executive Committee, in case of any future salary adjustments in respect of professional and ungraded categories of posts, to make recommendations ... annex to this document. The Committee took note of the practice of the Governing Bodies of PAhO to maintain the salary of the Director of PASB at the same level as that of the Deputy Director-General of WHO, and adopted Resolution XII, which reads as follows: CD33/9 Page 2 (Eng.) THE 101st MEETING OF THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE, Considering the revision ... 1988 ORIGINAL: ENGLISH SALARY OF THE DIRECTOR OF THE PAN AMERICAN SANITARY BUREAU Introduction The Forty-first World Health Assembly of WHO, upon the recommendation of the Executive Board and in keeping with the decision of the General Assembly of the United Nations to revise the schedule of salaries for staff in the professional and higher categories,
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Health as an economic value in a time of crisis

... development, because of the sizable investments and expenditures in the sector and also because of the population’s increasing expectations of better achievements. As a result, health has come to be viewed as a value of production, for the study of which the discipline of health economics has been created. This latter is really a new field of knowledge that ... debt of the poor countries has reached US$l,O35 billion; of this, US$43 billion was accrued in the past year, US$35 billion of it in currency revaluations alone. In other words, much of the increase in the debt owed is occurring without usufruct of the money. Every society is today anxiously exploring ways to promote the health and well-being of its ... establishment of a scale of priorities. Because of the greater demand for servicesarising from higher expectations and larger populations in the face of tight fmancial resource availability, every possible way of generating income and distributing resourcesis being considered. Health economics has set efficiency as a priority objective, which justifies review of the
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CD29.R4: Appointment of the External Auditor

... Auditor General of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, who has been appointed External Auditor of the World Health Organization for the financial periods 1984–1985 and 1986-1987, has expressed a willingness to serve as External Auditor of the Pan American Health Organization, RESOLVES To appoint the holder of the office of Comptroller ... OF THE REGIONAL COMMITTEE Washington D.C., 26 September – 3 October 1983 RESOLUTION CD29.R4 APPOINTMENT OF THE EXTERNAL AUDITOR THE 29th DIRECTING COUNCIL, Bearing in mind that it has been the practice of the World Health Organization and the Pan American Health Organization to have the same External Auditor, and that the holder of the office of ... of Comptroller and Auditor General of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland External Auditor of the accounts of the Pan American Health Organization for the financial periods 1984–1985 and 1986–1987, and to request him to conduct his audits in accordance with the principles set forth in Article XII of the PAHO Financial Regulations, with
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CD29.R5: Amendments to the financial regulations of the PAHO

... PAN AMERICAN HEALTH ORGANIZATION  WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION                    29th DIRECTING COUNCIL   35th SESSION OF THE REGIONAL COMMITTEE Washington D.C., 26 September – 3 October 1983 RESOLUTION CD29.R5 AMENDMENTS TO THE FINANCIAL REGULATIONS OF THE PAHO THE 29th DIRECTING COUNCIL, Having considered the recommendation of the 90th Meeting of the Executive Committee and the proposed changes in the ... into consideration that the changes in the Regulations will provide conformity between the Financial Regulations of WHO and PAHO with respect to the availability of appropriations, RESOLVES To approve the changes in the Financial Regulations of the Pan American Health Organization as they appear in Document CD29/31. Sept.–Oct. 1983 OD 192, 52
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Prevention of rheumatic fever

... -Zoma~ m _w E:' =) Acute rheumatic fever h People who have had rheumatic fever are at high risk of suffering a new and severe attack if again infected by streptococci. This risk increases directly and proportionately with the following factors: the youth of the patient; the number of earlier attacks of ARF; the severity of the residual cardiac lesion (CRC); the closeness in time ... streptococci, of which ARF is a non-suppurative complication. After the onset of streptocoecus infection (and following a latent period of 1-3 weeks), clinical manifestations of ARF may appear in susceptible persons. The factors determining this susceptibility are not at present known. All children in the group at greatest risk (5-15 years) suffer an average of ... the regularity of the treatment. In 1,110 patients that were receiving monthly intramuscular injections of benzathine penicillin, the number of streptococcus infection detected during the year of observation was recorded and correlated with the number of monthly injections received. It was found that the percentage of patients remaining free of streptococcus
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First intersectorial meeting on health of man in the Americas: progress report of the Director

... expansion of credit for the development. of commercial enterprises; - The financing of agroindustries; and - The promotion of fisheries production. Second, a program for promoting the production of processed foods of high nutritional value, which would encourage the development of a fairly large industrial sector and the large-scale production of new,highly ... subsistence. The Coverage Goal of the Ten-Year Health Plan The above observations are particularly meaningful in the Region of the Americas, since one of the fundamental goals of its Ten-Year Health Plan is to extend coverage of minimum services to the entire unprotected population. The Executive Committee of PAHO reaffirmed the importance of this goal at its ... I mean the provieion of a minimum "package" of social goods and services, including health promotion, to bring about a sustained reduction of the worst aspects of rural toverty." The Unified Approach of the United Nations This new approach is closely related to the concerns of the United Nations Economic and Social Council and of the United Nations
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Request of the Government of the Commonwealth of the Bahamas for membership in the PAHO

... favorable consideration to the request of the Government of the Commonwealth of The Bahamas for membership in the Pan American Health Organization. Annex (Eng.) INSTRUMENT PAN OF ACCEPTANCE OF THE CONSTITUTION AMERICAN HEALTH ORGANIZATION The Director General Pan American Health OF Organization. Sir, I have of the Health of The and of of T_is comply amended fully with by the I ... the Minister of External Affairs of the Commonwealth of The Bahamas on behalf of his Government, in a letter dated 26 February 1974, (Eng. CE72/12 Page 2 RESOLVES : i. To take note of the request of the Government of the Commonwealth of The Bahamas for membership in the Pan American Health Organization, and to instruct the Director of the Pan American ... 1974 ORIGINAL: ENGLISH REQUEST OF THE GOVERNMENT OF THE COMMONWEALTH OF THE BAHAMAS MEMBERSHIP IN THE PAN AMERICAN HEALTH ORGANIZATION FOR The Director of the Pan American Sanitary Bureau has the honor to advise the Executive Committee that he has received a letter from His Excellency Paul L. Adderley, Minister of External Affairs of the Commonwealth of The Bahamas,
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Proposed program and budget estimates of the WHO for the region of the Americas for 1978-79

... PROGRAM AND BUDGET ESTIMATES OF THE WORLD THE REGION OF THE AMERICAS FOR 1978-79 HEALTH ORGANIZATION FOR The Director-General of the World Health Organization has requested that the Regional Committee for the Americas recommend a tentative program projection in global terms for 1978 and 1979, within a planning ceiling of US$12,744,000 and $13,445,000, respectively. The ... distribution to the Director-General of the World Health Organization for inclusion in the WHO program for 1978-79 by adopting a resolution along the following lines: THE XIX PAN AMERICAN proposed Resolution SANITARY CONFERENCE, Having considered the Proposed Program and Budget Estimates of the World Health Organization for the Region of the Americas for 1976 ... 1977; and needs Recognizing the advisability into future years, of projecting probable program RESOLVES: To recommend to the Director General that he include in the Program and Budget Estimates of the World Health Organization for 1978 and 1979 the proposed program for the Region of the Americas as detailed in Document CsPIg/20. Annex csP19/20(Eng.) ANNEX oo oo oo olooo _oooo _ olooooooooo r--u_
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Election of two member countries to fill the vacancies on the Executive Committee

... (Eng.) ORIGINAL: Topic 27: SPANISH ELECTION OF TWO MEMBER COUNTRIES TO FILL THE VACANCIES ON THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE CREATED BY THE TERMINATION OF THE PERIODS OF OFFICE OF CHILE AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC Pursuant to Article 13-A of the Constitution of the Pan American Sanitary Organization, the Executive Committee "shall be composed of seven Member GCvernments elected ... 1955 Mexico October 1954 Panama October 1955 Since the terms of Chile and the Dominican Republic will expire immediately after the current Meeting of the Directing Council, two Member Countries are to be elected to form part of the Executive Committee under the provisions of the Constitution. MEMBERSHIP OF THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE T COUNTRY From From From E R M S From From From From January ... GCvernments elected by the Council for overlapping terms of three years... A Member Government shall not be eligible for reelection to the Executive Committee until one year has elapsed." The following chart shows the composition of the Executive Committee together with the expiration dates of the terms of the present Members: Executive Committee Country Term
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Remuneration of international staff members of the PASB

... subject to the application of salary differentials designed to equate the salaries of internationally recruited staff in all areas of the world in terms of cost of living and related factors. It is, therefore, the present practice of the Bureau to apply an "initial" cost-ofliving adjustment (plus or minus) in multiples of 10% to 75% of the international salaries ... equity of grade levels throughout the staff, the grade classifications are based on the degrees of responsibility and the duties of each post regardless of geographic location. About a year ago a study was made of the responsibilities and duties of the Zone Representatives to determine the proper grade level. As a result of the study, the grade level of ... cost -of- living in a locality and that in New York as of the base date (May 1950) has been established. Subsequent adjustments will be made, based upon significant changes in the cost of living in that locality. '^- V CE19/8 (Eng.) Page 3 Further, the Staff Rules of the Bureau offer certain types of allowances which provide and added source of remuneration
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Scientific institutions en Latin America: National Institute of Hygiene of Ecuador

... manufacture of serums, vaccines, and B.C.G. (tuberculosis vaccine). There will be a special division for the study of plague. The museum will have collections of both rare and common species of Ameritan animals and insects. It is felt that the city of Guayaquil, which was the scene of two great victories of international hygiene (the eradication of yellow ... fever, last case, May, 1918, and of plague, last case, April 14, 1939) is an especially appropriate location for thii center of scientific research. Severa1 of the personnel of the Institute are receiving special training in scientific institutions of the United States, before taking up their new duties. * One of B series of papera describing the prinoipal ... HIGIENE)* AMERICA (INSTITUTO Guayaquil, Ecuador The National Institute of Hygiene of Ecuador has been established by the National Department of Health in response to a long-felt need. In this country, situated in the tropical region of South America, with its variety in climate, its abrupt changes in altitude, and its wide range of agricultura1 production and the diversity in
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