Communicative teaching of english as a foreign language: an approach haunted by traditional and structural myths

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M A R A LICE COMMUNICATIVE FOREIGN BY DE SOUZA TEACHING LANGUAGE: TRADITIONAL AN AND OF NEVES ENGLISH AS A APPROACH HAUNTED STRUCTURAL MYTHS Dissertação apresentada ao Curso de Pós-Graduação em Letras da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, como parte dos requisitos para a obtenção do grau de Mestre em Letras - Inglês. Orientadora; Profa. Dra. Menezes de Oliveira e Paiva Belo Horizonte Faculdade de Letras da UFMG 1993 Vera Lúcia Dissertação pelos seguintes aprovada pela banca examinadora, constituída professores: ^0 ^ Profa. Profa. Dra. Dra. VERA LÚCIA MENEZES DE O. Orientadora - UFMG ELI ANA AMARANTE DE M. 11 1 Profa. i\íi E PAIVA MENDES - UFMG ! L ROSA MARIA NEVES DA SILVA - UFMG Profa. Dra. Vera Lúcia Andrade Coordenadora do Curso de Pós-Graduação em Letras - FALE/UFMG Faculdade de Letras da UFMG BeloHorizonte, de de 1993 To my mother Iris To my memory of my father Nivaldo and brother Eduardo To my brother Eunice, To Edna, and sisters Eliane, Eneida, Silvana, the Paynes and Cihaks Evaldo, and Luiz AKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would Lima like to Bastos, interest express my special whose classes e Paiva, all my assisting decisions. friendship and I her husband, Assumpção I am each want her like for and to her patient every thank de firstaroused my guidance; attempt her, and above encouragement. Paiva and her two for her have My gratitude children, Anna to Paula for their patience with us. to thank my special dearest help with friend the Lúcia Maria proof-reading Rezende and a lot lucky to have such friend. colleague Avany Pazzini Chiaretti, deepest and for respect indebtness her constant and generosity in sharing precious pieces of Special to my thanks Sylvia Mancini, cooperation. Without poss ib1e. supporting would not To my friend and Mara respecting all, This dissertation personal José Eduardo and Carlos Honorato I would also for her delicious meals. been written without more. advice Herzila Maria to Professor Vera Lúcia Menezes de Oliveira thesis advisor, stumble, my sound to in this Master's course. My deepest gratitude each and gratitude colleagues Helivane and them Raquel this Patrus study I express my encouragement information. de Azevedo Evangelista, for would their not invaluable have been My expression of gratitude invaluable help when I was I cousin wish to thank my to Laura Stella taking my first Sandra de Miccoli Azevedo My Wanderley Doctor who has Borges, perseverance and self-commitment. to her steps. taught me so much about gratitude for Ramalho for his special help and pa t i ence. My gratitude whose last also goes minute to advice Professor enabled Paulo the Renan Gomes final da organization Silva, of this s tudy. Thanks are due understanding special to Faculdades and support gratitude to Regina Célia Carneiro, I should me in Nádia like different Alves Estevão de in Roriz, de ways, and Oliveira, Tolentino, Auxiliadora Bahia. Newton me Paiva conclude Auxiliadora dos for my their work. Santos My Mafra, and Ana Maria Vale Leão. extend my Cássio helping Maria thanks in Luiz to all different Maria Portocarrero Naveira, Fernandes Ana to Prof. Integradas Ivone Dr. Rosana Botelho friends phases Beserra Tarciso Lucas, my and helped this study: Ramalho, Fialho, Adriana Aguilar, of who Magda Mancini my Lucidio Velloso Machado, analist Maria ABSTRACT This teachers at been study a college perpetuating practice, which learners' discusses might students' the L2 questionnaires, The results communicative techniques, in one results tests and a classroom deeply be the the hypothesis students traditional unsuccessful cross-checked adopt where the and of major in the structural the that of teachers' the analysis In our the still in causes their for procedure interviews, of have myths possible acquisition. L2 language the we with the materials and lesson observation. show that materials traditional although and there employ and structural learning process. is some an attempt to commun i ca t ive myths still interfere TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER 1 1.1) Introduction 10 CHAPTER 2 2.1) LANGUAGE TEACHING APPROACHES 2.2) GRAMMAR-TRANSLATION OR TRADITIONAL APPROACH 2.2.1) Theoretical Assumptions, Objectives and Techniques of the GT Approach 2.2.2) The Assessment System in this Approach 2.3) THE DIRECT APPROACH 2.3.1) Theoretical Assumptions, Objectives, and Techniques of the DA Approach 2.3.2) The Assessment System in this Approach 2.4) THE STRUCTURAL OR AUDIO-LINGUAL APPROACH 2.4.1) Theoretical Assumptions, Objectives and Techniques of the AL Approach 2.4.2) The Assessment System in this Approach 15 17 18 19 20 22 23 24 26 29 CHAPTER 3 3.1) THE COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH . *. 3.1.1) Developing the Concept of Communicative Competence 3.1.2) Communicative Approach: Principles 3.1.3) The Role Played by Materials in Communicative Language Instruction Principles 3.1.4) The Role of Testing in the Communicative Language Instruction 33 38 44 45 47 CHAPTER 4 4.1) DATA ANALYSIS 4.1.1) Introduction 4.1.2) Methodology Description of subjects Procedures Results and Discussion Concept of language teaching The teacher's method The role of the materials in the teacher's methodology Aquaintance with recent trends in teaching/learning theory What makes students learn The aimed level of proficiency; is attainable or is it an illusion? Assessment of learning: tests 4.2) CLASSROOM OBSERVATION 4.2.1) Conclusion 59 59 60 60 61 62 62 73 81 98 102 it 113 118 13 1 145 CHAPTER 5 5.1) Conclusion 151 BIBLIOGRAPHICAL REFERENCES 158 APPENDIX APPENDIX APPENDIX APPENDIX APPENDIX APPENDIX APPENDIX 162 163 201 227 266 268 286 1 - Transcription Code 2 3 4 5 6 7 A SCHOOLMISTRESS "A TREACHER AFFECTS ETERNITY; HE CAN NEVER TELL WHERE HIS INFLUENCE STOPS." (HENRY BROOKS ADAMS) Mondays, she resumes the endless journey from home to classroom: old books filled with pieces of wisdom a bag of hopes carefully kindled She draws the world as a whole new possibility: the faith in man, love, all the attainable peace the unshakable truth higher values Young minds thrill to the echoes of her teachings as she invites all hearts to the perfect dream Her life may fade in the mist of oblivion though empty rooms and withered pages remain as signs of honored ideals Marco Túlio Barreto August, 1993 CHAPTER 1.1) INTRODUCTION Second referred to recent or as Foreign L2) literature Approach to students L2 to practice In in aware of Approach a era for L2 graduate and theoretical in we their have and and researchers' de articles published personal contacts Professores the in that colleges reports both teachers and institutions to try to improving this change in at a project de team of are put into of the the L2 (1991), to such as among L2 research others Teaching on Celani and ^ Estudos de Lingüística Aplicada Estadual de Campinas - UNICAMP. to Inglesa), curriculum Aplicada^ who have design and been (PSLI) at de Minas Gerais. (1989), Cavalcanti studies in published has by and in Brazil, methodology is according Língua da conducting teaching and taken (Encontro teachers Learning has ENPULIs Lingüística of L2 Brazil, the Universitários Estudos with new Researchers too much Communicative for Faculdade de Letras da Universidade Federal Linguistics changes; constructs search observed universities Nacional Lopes the new changes forward important emphasized at these many (hence learning processes. many conducting as Teaching through greatly latest fact, teachers' gone has these teaching and Language Teachers be Communicative has teaching alike. expected place 1 Moita Applied state that already been Universidade 11 done. The apparent present need enabling both understand the process This the attitude classroom constructs into of the and in towards research learners investigating of both factors affective teachers and of students' name a few such factors, needs of the become themselves as of to process the These rise take interaction strategies, learning topics of theoretical constructs classroom wants, possible the learners would some learning and has learning an L2. Communicative Approach. analysis, but teachers application consideration management, classroom involved acquisition on the part from for conversation evaluation, worth and to investigating emp i r i ca11y. The two main results reasons: of teachers' aware decision L2 learning to several picture, we teachers are might still as be traditional or they might be be been for the despite the we are unsatisfactory the fact using teaching using where Alt hough of implicitly strategies of Celani grammar that constructs either as for this cause, Or taken college theoretical approaches. still a results. causes the has unsatisfactory these the at Therefore, still structural teach quite of Approach. they might study possible unaware explicitly, it, are a this we improve suggest Communicative puts conduct firstly, efforts that to as (op.cit, the "cure our the or the 39) all remedy". Secondly, inspite suspect, of the then, we have use of that the been observing so-called adoption of unrewarding very these modern modern results in materials. We materials has 12 been insufficient We teachers matter have thus still of in relation consider hypothesis, no the language grammatical expected performance. following items or materials we believe that, if teachers use will also adopt teaching, of authoritarianism evaluation, they to control creating their a to be they use. situation Unfolding our model traditional students' learning that a linguistic a traditional the our mostly acquiring what language hypothesis: instruction matter of and learners' formulated teaching competence, to role process students will passively accept and reproduce. We have chosen to conduct this study by developing the following procedures: a) Interviews members with teaching teachers were in Each were in to analysis. L2 the we The feel in more of to dissertation it L2 at conducted since recorded. enable a meant unnecessary These ease, being is faculty 1992. interviews were discomfort found seven Department transcribed The in the views questionnaire was the better for to the translate into English. teachers. students' of teachers to be answered factors considered the the this teacher, b) Questionnaires random. fully as the transcriptions three Language facing was And, interviewed the make already interview Brazilian least chosen at Portuguese they at students of questionnaire interviews, with answered by five those in of anonymously by was based order to the each of on the the cross-check teachers'. the students The chosen 13 at random. The students according to the c) Definition of were codified, however, in groups teacher. the points to be investigated and subsequent denomination seven factors': 1) The teachers' concept of language teaching 2) The teachers' methods of language teaching 3) The role played by materials 4) The in the teacher's methodology teacher's acquaintance with the most recent trends in language teaching/1 earning theories 5) What makes students 6) The aimed current level Class learning observation arriven of proficiency: is it attainable in this context? 7) Assessment of d) learn at to through tests verify through the the corroboration analysis of of conclusions interviews and ques t ionnaires. Accordingly, we have organized this dissertation as f o 11ows: In chapter major L2 teaching still today, In Competence together are 2 with present approaches likely to chapter and we the their 3 we and a historical their outline testing influence our teachers' discuss development implications materials and adequate testing. the of in concept the the of systems the which, praxis. of Communicative Communicative selection of Approach teaching 14 Our data is analysed in report. This classroom observation out 'in three voices'; the chapter 4 analysis teachers', the together is with actually students', the carried and the author's . Our hypothesis conclusions testing and are chart given in quantification. chapter Under 5 the through prism our findings we have suggested some alternative solutions. of CHAPTER 2.1) LANGUAGE In have the been TEACHING world of made effectively. APPROACHES language to teach For more than these it theoretical derived from is instruction, a second a century have been formalized to achieve Presently a and must their different attempts foreign language or now, theoretical constructs this goal. constructs, them, 2 for L2 teachers the effects contribution to understand which to have current been thought in L2 teaching. L2 teachers approaches, often methods, about matters terms in and related their hear daily to applied practice. them very clearly. clear each term means theorists in applied Stern who first technique. theoretical "what He constitutes materials to implementation the referred axioms be to across when talking linguistics. However, It terms is they according to or They do necessary, such these seem then, recent reading use not as to to make proposals of linguistics. (1983:474) proposed come techniques distinguish what or or quoted Anthony(1963/1965) distinction between to approach bases teaching taught, induce of as strategies, their approach, "what language the one method, and constitutes teaching"; i.e. presentation learning"; as and the and the method as selection of pedagogical techniques as being 16 "specific vStratagems classroom". It associated with axioms must be more tricks noted than used that one a by the given method teacher technique and one in may method the well may be gather from more than one approach. Anthony be or based on techniques and Morris axioms, selected to (1969:6) and it lead the conclude must be student that "method implemented to the must through desired language behavior as defined by those axioms". Richards et al. (1985:15) summarize the distinction this way: "Different theories about the nature of language and how languages are learned (the approach) imply different ways of teaching language (the method), and different methods make use of different kinds of classroom activity (the t echnique ) ." Therefore comprehends language of the is the we choose theoretical learned. teacher will to in presentation principles of major better clarify study. The believed of L2 to some of language of approaches the taken a or 'approach' that turn, learning, including the choice of material The call constructs 'Method', induce to is that ascertain the the individual his/her way of which way choice teaching, and techniques. historical outline teaching approaches assumptions into we have consideration in the and the basic is essential raised here in are pedagogical to this those be of greater importance context teaching in Brazil: the Grammar-Translation Approach, the 17 Direct Approach, the Audio-Lingual Approach, and the Communicative Approach. 2.2) GRAMMAR-TRANSLATION The known It "the translation technique into the became traditional studying a with APPROACH (from GT) popular As a matter book and adaptation was made the with replacing texts with exemp1ificatory sentences. However, Approach was did teach not in accused despite been other use, the teaching the the since it later developed into a is still contributory strategies. as a basic practice, Most La tin; rules 18th an with practice century." adaptation a language knowledge use of a to of by the dictionary. traditional the language GT and classical {Howatt,1984: I 3 1 ) . a many attacks, mod ified this decades of Grammar-Translation, Greek learning being Most oldest late of (Di1 ler,1969:3). opposed the final the principal GT was applying texts by the of is grammar as fact, practice classical of in of on teaching of language only scholastic of the now combination target grammar interpretation This began regular (Stern, 1983:453 ) . the TRADITIONAL Grammar-Translation approach. however, OR lifeless did but and not the axioms of cold method how approaches must in to strongly today, that, having conj unction se1f-teaching the GT approach. that speak remember employed strategy current century the GT teach we widely 19th with methods 18 2.2.1) Theoretical Assumptions, Techniques This justified reading, to oriented. words. taught grammatical put It long exercises which in into was the an common disconnected the interaction equilibrium value of MeCpG steps (,+14 deg.) [31,44]. In comparison, methylation has a significantly lower stability cost when happening at major groove positions, such as 211 and 21 base pair from dyad (mutations 9 and 12), where the roll of the nucleosome bound conformation (+10 deg.) is more compatible with the equilibrium geometry of MeCpG steps. The nucleosome destabilizing effect of cytosine methylation increases with the number of methylated cytosines, following the same position dependence as the single methylations. The multiple-methylation case reveals that each major groove meth- PLOS Computational Biology | 3 November 2013 | Volume 9 | Issue 11 | e1003354 DNA Methylation and Nucleosome Positioning ylation destabilizes the nucleosome by around 1 kJ/mol (close to the average estimate of 2 kJ/mol obtained for from individual methylation studies), while each minor groove methylation destabilizes it by up to 5 kJ/mol (average free energy as single mutation is around 6 kJ/mol). This energetic position-dependence is the reverse of what was observed in a recent FRET/SAXS study [30]. The differences can be attributed to the use of different ionic conditions and different sequences: a modified Widom-601 sequence of 157 bp, which already contains multiple CpG steps in mixed orientations, and which could assume different positioning due to the introduction of new CpG steps and by effect of the methylation. The analysis of our trajectories reveals a larger root mean square deviation (RMSD) and fluctuation (RMSF; see Figures S2– S3 in Text S1) for the methylated nucleosomes, but failed to detect any systematic change in DNA geometry or in intermolecular DNA-histone energy related to methylation (Fig. S1B, S1C, S4–S6 in Text S1). The hydrophobic effect should favor orientation of the methyl group out from the solvent but this effect alone is not likely to justify the positional dependent stability changes in Figure 2, as the differential solvation of the methyl groups in the bound and unbound states is only in the order of a fraction of a water molecule (Figure S5 in Text S1). We find however, a reasonable correlation between methylation-induced changes in hydrogen bond and stacking interactions of the bases and the change in nucleosome stability (see Figure S6 in Text S1). This finding suggests that methylation-induced nucleosome destabilization is related to the poorer ability of methylated DNA to fit into the required conformation for DNA in a nucleosome. Changes in the elastic deformation energy between methylated and un-methylated DNA correlate with nucleosomal differential binding free energies To further analyze the idea that methylation-induced nucleosome destabilization is connected to a worse fit of methylated DNA into the required nucleosome-bound conformation, we computed the elastic energy of the nucleosomal DNA using a harmonic deformation method [36,37,44]. This method provides a rough estimate of the energy required to deform a DNA fiber to adopt the super helical conformation in the nucleosome (full details in Suppl. Information Text S1). As shown in Figure 2, there is an evident correlation between the increase that methylation produces in the elastic deformation energy (DDE def.) and the free energy variation (DDG bind.) computed from MD/TI calculations. Clearly, methylation increases the stiffness of the CpG step [31], raising the energy cost required to wrap DNA around the histone octamers. This extra energy cost will be smaller in regions of high positive roll (naked DNA MeCpG steps have a higher roll than CpG steps [31]) than in regions of high negative roll. Thus, simple elastic considerations explain why methylation is better tolerated when the DNA faces the histones through the major groove (where positive roll is required) that when it faces histones through the minor groove (where negative roll is required). Nucleosome methylation can give rise to nucleosome repositioning We have established that methylation affects the wrapping of DNA in nucleosomes, but how does this translate into chromatin structure? As noted above, accumulation of minor groove methylations strongly destabilizes the nucleosome, and could trigger nucleosome unfolding, or notable changes in positioning or phasing of DNA around the histone core. While accumulation of methylations might be well tolerated if placed in favorable positions, accumulation in unfavorable positions would destabilize the nucleosome, which might trigger changes in chromatin structure. Chromatin could in fact react in two different ways in response to significant levels of methylation in unfavorable positions: i) the DNA could either detach from the histone core, leading to nucleosome eviction or nucleosome repositioning, or ii) the DNA could rotate around the histone core, changing its phase to place MeCpG steps in favorable positions. Both effects are anticipated to alter DNA accessibility and impact gene expression regulation. The sub-microsecond time scale of our MD trajectories of methylated DNAs bound to nucleosomes is not large enough to capture these effects, but clear trends are visible in cases of multiple mutations occurring in unfavorable positions, where unmethylated and methylated DNA sequences are out of phase by around 28 degrees (Figure S7 in Text S1). Due to this repositioning, large or small, DNA could move and the nucleosome structure could assume a more compact and distorted conformation, as detected by Lee and Lee [29], or a slightly open conformation as found in Jimenez-Useche et al. [30]. Using the harmonic deformation method, we additionally predicted the change in stability induced by cytosine methylation for millions of different nucleosomal DNA sequences. Consistently with our calculations, we used two extreme scenarios to prepare our DNA sequences (see Fig. 3): i) all positions where the minor grooves contact the histone core are occupied by CpG steps, and ii) all positions where the major grooves contact the histone core are occupied by CpG steps. We then computed the elastic energy required to wrap the DNA around the histone proteins in unmethylated and methylated states, and, as expected, observed that methylation disfavors DNA wrapping (Figure 3A). We have rescaled the elastic energy differences with a factor of 0.23 to match the DDG prediction in figure 2B. In agreement with the rest of our results, our analysis confirms that the effect of methylation is position-dependent. In fact, the overall difference between the two extreme methylation scenarios (all-in-minor vs all-in-major) is larger than 60 kJ/mol, the average difference being around 15 kJ/ mol. We have also computed the elastic energy differences for a million sequences with CpG/MeCpG steps positioned at all possible intermediate locations with respect to the position (figure 3B). The large differences between the extreme cases can induce rotations of DNA around the histone core, shifting its phase to allow the placement of the methylated CpG steps facing the histones through the major groove. It is illustrative to compare the magnitude of CpG methylation penalty with sequence dependent differences. Since there are roughly 1.5e88 possible 147 base pairs long sequence combinations (i.e., (4n+4(n/2))/2, n = 147), it is unfeasible to calculate all the possible sequence effects. However, using our elastic model we can provide a range of values based on a reasonably large number of samples. If we consider all possible nucleosomal sequences in the yeast genome (around 12 Mbp), the energy difference between the best and the worst sequence that could form a nucleosome is 0.7 kj/mol per base (a minimum of 1 kJ/mol and maximum of around 1.7 kJ/mol per base, the first best and the last worst sequences are displayed in Table S3 in Text S1). We repeated the same calculation for one million random sequences and we obtained equivalent results. Placing one CpG step every helical turn gives an average energetic difference between minor groove and major groove methylation of 15 kJ/ mol, which translates into ,0.5 kJ/mol per methyl group, 2 kJ/ mol per base for the largest effects. Considering that not all nucleosome base pair steps are likely to be CpG steps, we can conclude that the balance between the destabilization due to CpG methylation and sequence repositioning will depend on the PLOS Computational Biology | 4 November 2013 | Volume 9 | Issue 11 | e1003354 DNA Methylation and Nucleosome Positioning Figure 3. Methylated and non-methylated DNA elastic deformation energies. (A) Distribution of deformation energies for 147 bplong random DNA sequences with CpG steps positioned every 10 base steps (one helical turn) in minor (red and dark red) and major (light and dark blue) grooves respectively. The energy values were rescaled by the slope of a best-fit straight line of figure 2, which is 0.23, to por la lectura a través de la lectura de la prensa. La educación en los medios las fuerzas dispersas en función de los soportes mediáticos y orientarse más hacia la educación en medios que al dominio adquiere pleno derecho y entidad en la sección sexta titulada «competencias sociales y cívi- técnico de los aparatos. cas» que indica que «los alum- nos deberán ser capaces de juz- gar y tendrán espíritu crítico, lo que supone ser educados en los las programaciones oficiales, ya que, a lo largo de un medios y tener conciencia de su lugar y de su influencia estudio de los textos, los documentalistas del CLEMI en la sociedad». han podido señalar más de una centena de referencias a la educación de los medios en el seno de disciplinas 4. Un entorno positivo como el francés, la historia, la geografía, las lenguas, Si nos atenemos a las cifras, el panorama de la las artes plásticas : trabajos sobre las portadas de educación en medios es muy positivo. Una gran ope- prensa, reflexiones sobre temas mediáticos, análisis de ración de visibilidad como la «Semana de la prensa y publicidad, análisis de imágenes desde todos los ángu- de los medios en la escuela», coordinada por el CLE- los, reflexión sobre las noticias en los países europeos, MI, confirma año tras año, después de 17 convocato- información y opinión rias, el atractivo que ejerce sobre los profesores y los Esta presencia se constata desde la escuela mater- alumnos. Concebida como una gran operación de nal (2 a 6 años) donde, por ejemplo, se le pregunta a complementariedad entre la escuela y los profesiona- los niños más pequeños si saben diferenciar entre un les de los medios, alrededor del aprendizaje ciudada- periódico, un libro, un catálogo, a través de activida- no de la comunicación mediática, este evento moviliza des sensoriales, si saben para qué sirve un cartel, un durante toda una semana un porcentaje elevado de periódico, un cuaderno, un ordenador si son capa- centros escolares que representan un potencial de 4,3 ces de reconocer y distinguir imágenes de origen y de millones de alumnos (cifras de 2006). Basada en el naturaleza distintas. Podríamos continuar con más voluntariado, la semana permite desarrollar activida- ejemplos en todos los niveles de enseñanza y práctica- des más o menos ambiciosas centradas en la introduc- Páginas 43-48 ción de los medios en la vida de la escuela a través de la instalación de kioscos, organización de debates con profesionales y la confección por parte de los alumnos de documentos difundidos en los medios profesionales. Es la ocasión de dar un empujón a la educación en medios y de disfrutarlos. Los medios –un millar en 2006– se asocian de maneras diversas ofreciendo ejemplares de periódicos, acceso a noticias o a imágenes, proponiendo encuentros, permitiendo intervenir a los jóvenes en sus ondas o en sus columnas Esta operación da luz al trabajo de la educación en medios y moviliza a los diferentes participantes en el proyecto. 5. La formación de los docentes La formación es uno de los pilares principales de la educación en los medios. Su función es indispensable ya que no se trata de una disciplina, sino de una enseñanza que se hace sobre la base del voluntariado y del compromiso personal. Se trata de convencer, de mostrar, de interactuar. En primer lugar es necesario incluirla en la formación continua de los docentes, cuyo volumen se ha incrementado desde 1981 con la aparición de una verdadera política de formación continua de personal. Es difícil dar una imagen completa del volumen y del público, pero si nos atenemos a las cifras del CLEMI, hay más de 24.000 profesores que han asistido y se han involucrado durante 2004-05. 5.1. La formación continua En la mayoría de los casos, los profesores reciben su formación en contextos cercanos a su centro de trabajo, o incluso en este mismo. Después de una política centrada en la oferta que hacían los formadores, se valora más positivamente la demanda por parte del profesorado, ya que sólo así será verdaderamente fructífera. Los cursos de formación se repartieron en varias categorías: desde los formatos más tradicionales (cursos, debates, animaciones), hasta actividades de asesoramiento y de acompañamiento, y por supuesto los coloquios que permiten un trabajo en profundidad ya que van acompañados de expertos investigadores y profesionales. Citemos, por ejemplo en 2005, los coloquios del CLEMI-Toulouse sobre el cine documental o el del CLEMI-Dijon sobre «Políticos y medios: ¿connivencia?». Estos coloquios, que forman parte de un trabajo pedagógico regular, reagrupan a los diferentes participantes regionales y nacionales alrededor de grandes temas de la educación en medios y permiten generar nuevos conocimientos de aproximación y una profundización. Páginas 43-48 Hay otro tipo de formación original que se viene desarrollando desde hace menos tiempo, a través de cursos profesionales, como por ejemplo, en el Festival Internacional de Foto-periodismo «Visa para la imagen», en Perpignan. La formación se consolida en el curso, da acceso a las exposiciones, a las conferencias de profesionales y a los grandes debates, pero añade además propuestas pedagógicas y reflexiones didácticas destinadas a los docentes. Estas nuevas modalidades de formación son también consecuencia del agotamiento de la formación tradicional en las regiones. Los contenidos más frecuentes en formación continua conciernen tanto a los temas más clásicos como a los cambios que se están llevando a cabo en las prácticas mediáticas. Así encontramos distintas tendencias para 2004-05: La imagen desde el ángulo de la producción de imágenes animadas, el análisis de la imagen de la información o las imágenes del J.T. La prensa escrita y el periódico escolar. Internet y la información en línea. Medios y educación de los medios. 5.2 La formación inicial La formación inicial está aun en un grado muy ini- cial. El hecho de que la educación en medios no sea una disciplina impide su presencia en los IUFM (Institutos Universitarios de Formación de Maestros) que dan una prioridad absoluta a la didáctica de las disciplinas. En 2003, alrededor de 1.400 cursillistas sobre un total de 30.000 participaron en un momento u otro de un módulo de educación en medios. Estos módulos se ofrecen en función del interés que ese formador encuentra puntualmente y forman parte a menudo de varias disciplinas: documentación, letras, historia-geografía Estamos aún lejos de una política concertada en este dominio. La optativa «Cine-audiovisual» ha entrado desde hace muy poco tiempo en algunos IUFM destinada a obtener un certificado de enseñanza de la opción audiovisual y cine. Internet tiene cabida también en los cursos de formación inicial, recientemente con la aparición de un certificado informático y de Internet para los docentes, dirigido más a constatar competencias personales que a valorar una aptitud para enseñarlos. 6. ¿Y el futuro? El problema del futuro se plantea una vez más por la irrupción de nuevas técnicas y nuevos soportes. La difusión acelerada de lo digital replantea hoy muchas cuestiones relativas a prácticas mediáticas. Muchos Comunicar, 28, 2007 47 Comunicar, 28, 2007 Enrique Martínez-Salanova '2007 para Comunicar 48 trabajos que llevan el rótulo de la educación en medios solicitan una revisión ya que los conceptos cambian. La metodología elaborada en el marco de la educación en medios parece incluso permitir la inclinación de la sociedad de la información hacia una sociedad del conocimiento, como defiende la UNESCO. En Francia, se necesitaría unir las fuerzas dispersas en función de los soportes mediáticos y orientarse más hacia la educación en medios que al dominio técnico de los aparatos. Los avances recientes en el reconocimiento de estos contenidos y las competencias que supondrían podrían permitirlo. Referencias CLEMI/ACADEMIE DE BORDEAUX (Ed.) (2003): Parcours médias au collège: approches disciplinaires et transdisciplinaires. Aquitaine, Sceren-CRDP. GONNET, J. (2001): Education aux médias. Les controverses fécondes. Paris, Hachette Education/CNDP. SAVINO, J.; MARMIESSE, C. et BENSA, F. (2005): L’éducation aux médias de la maternelle au lycée. Direction de l’Enseignement Scolaire. Paris, Ministère de l’Education Nationale, Sceren/CNDP, Témoigner. BEVORT, E. et FREMONT, P. (2001): Médias, violence et education. Paris, CNDP, Actes et rapports pour l’éducation. – fiches pédagogiques, rapports et liens avec les pages régionales/académiques. – Le site «Quai des images» est dédié à l’enseignement du cinéma et de l’audiovisuel. – la rubrique «Côté profs» a une entrée «education aux médias». – Programme européen d’éducation aux risques liés à Internet. dResedfeleexliobnuetsacón Páginas 43-48
Communicative teaching of english as a foreign language: an approach haunted by traditional and structural myths


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Communicative teaching of english as a foreign language: an approach haunted by traditional and structural myths