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Suitability of Soil and Climate for Oilseed Rape Production in the Republic of Croatia

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ORIGINAL SCIENTIFIC PAPER Suitability of Soil and Climate for Oilseed Rape Production in the Republic of Croatia Milan POSPIŠIL ( ) Marina BRČIĆ Stjepan HUSNJAK Summary he paper describes the suitability of soil and weather conditions for oilseed rape production in the agricultural region of the Pannonian Plain in the Republic of Croatia. Soil suitability was estimated on the basis of the existing soil properties. here are 1,169,626 ha of soils suitable for oilseed rape production in the Pannonian agricultural region of the Republic of Croatia, of which 229,839 ha are highly suitable soils (class S-1), 351,392 ha are moderately suitable soils (class S-2), and 588,395 ha are marginally suitable soils (class S-3). On marginally suitable soils oilseed rape should not be grown. To satisfy the planned raw oil requirements of the Republic of Croatia, 60,00070,000 ha should be allotted to oilseed rape production. Suitability of climate conditions for oilseed rape production was assessed on the basis of the analysis of weather conditions for seven locations in the Pannonian agricultural region over 30 years (1971-2000). Oilseed rape had almost optimal temperature conditions for good emergence and strong initial growth and autumn growth (mean monthly air temperature 15.4oC). In the winter period (November, December, January, February), mean monthly air temperature was 2oC, and mean minimum air temperature was -1.5oC. In the spring period, mean monthly air temperature was 8.4oC. In the last part of the growing period (May, June), mean monthly air temperature was 17.3oC. From 528 mm (Osijek) to 718 mm (Sisak) of precipitation was recorded over the growing period, which fully satisies water requirements of oilseed rape. he analysis clearly shows that, under the agroecological conditions prevailing in the Republic of Croatia, there are no expressly critical parts of the growing period with regard to lack of precipitation. he most critical period is the sowing-emergence time, since very dry August and September, i.e. lack of moisture for satisfactory and uniform emergence of oilseed rape, were recorded in eastern Croatia in some years. Key words oilseed rape, soil properties, weather conditions, Croatia University of Zagreb, Faculty of Agriculture, Svetosimunska cesta 25, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia e-mail: mpospisil@agr.hr Received: October 28, 2010 | Accepted: February 28, 2011 Agriculturae Conspectus Scientiicus | Vol. 76 (2011) No. 1 (35-39) 35 36 Milan POSPIŠIL, Marina BRČIĆ, Stjepan HUSNJAK Introduction According to the data of the Central Bureau of Statistics, oilseed rape participates with 1.3% in the sowing structure of the Republic of Croatia. Total areas under oilseed rape in the last 15 years (1993-2007) varied from 5,356 ha (1997) to 20,150 ha (2005). Largest areas under oilseed rape (98.1%) are in the agricultural region of the Pannonian Plain in the Republic of Croatia, i.e. in the territory of 11 counties. Average oilseed rape yields in the Republic of Croatia have shown an increasing trend in the last 15 years, varying between 1.52 and 3.01 t/ha in particular years. hese results are not satisfactory, since average seed yields of over 3.0 t/ha are achieved in agriculturally developed countries (e.g. in Germany). Total oilseed rape production in the Republic of Croatia in the last 15 years ranged from 11,181 to 41,275 tons per year. hese quantities do not satisfy the demands of our three vegetable oil factories (Zvijezda d.d. – Zagreb, IPK tvornica ulja Čepin, ABN – Zagreb), and the completed (60,000 t) and planned (100,000 t) capacities for biodiesel fuel production. Major prerequisites for eicient oilseed rape production are suitable soils and favourable weather conditions. Oilseed rape grows best on deep, humus and calcium rich loam-clay soils, which are not prone to mud bogging and crust formation. Undeveloped soils, of poor water-air properties, with marked depressions in which water stagnates, are not suitable for oilseed rape production because of plant density reduction and thereby yield decrease (Mustapić and Gašperov, 1985). Owing to precipitation deiciency, critical periods occur at the time of oilseed rape emergence and from the lowering stage to the seed illing stage. Lack of precipitation at the lowering stage until the seed i lling stage does not only afect seed yield and seed components (Champolivier and Merrien, 1996) but also oil yield (Istanbulluoglu et al., 2010) and its quality (Pospišil et al., 2007). As regards temperature, two critical periods occur during the oilseed rape growing period. he irst critical period may occur in winter when oilseed rape can perish due to long-lasting frosts and low temperatures (Mustapić et al., 1986). he second critical period occurs in spring, from the initial lowering stage until ripening, when maximum air temperatures over 30oC reduce seed yields (Kutcher et al., 2010). Yield reduction is due to the formation of fewer lowers and seedpods, lower seed mass and a smaller number of seeds per pod (Morrison and Stewart, 2002). he objective of this study was to evaluate the suitability of soil and weather conditions for oilseed rape production in the agricultural region of the Pannonian Plain in the Republic of Croatia. Material and methods Soil suitability for oilseed rape production was assessed according to the FAO soil classiication criteria (FAO, 1976; Vidaček, 1981), in which soils are classiied into ive suitability classes. he irst three classes include soils suitable for oilseed rape production, the irst of which includes highly suitable, second moderately suitable, and the third marginally suitable soils. he remaining two classes are soils not suitable for oilseed rape production. he source of pedological data was the digital soil map, scale 1:500000, and the ground elevation map, scale 1:300000, from the archives of the University of Zagreb, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Soil Science (Bogunović et al., 1997; Husnjak et al., 2000; Husnjak et al., 2005). Suitability of climatic conditions for oilseed rape production was assessed on the base of the analysis of weather conditions (mean monthly air temperature, monthly minimum and maximum air temperatures, monthly precipitation) for seven weather stations (Osijek, Slavonski Brod, Đurđevac, Križevci, Varaždin, Zagreb-Maksimir and Sisak) in the agricultural region of the Pannonian Plain over 30 years (1971-2000). Data from the Meteorological and Hydrological Service of Croatia was used for the analysis of weather conditions (Zaninović et al., 2008). Oilseed rape growing period was divided into four periods: 1st period – autumn growth (August to October), 2nd period - winter repose (November to February of the following year), 3rd period – spring growth until lowering (March to April), and 4th period – end of lowering to ripening (May and June). Results and discussion here are 1,169,626 ha of soils suitable for oilseed rape production in the Pannonian agricultural region of the Republic of Croatia, of which 229,839 ha are highly suitable soils (class S-1), 351,392 ha are moderately suitable soils (class S-2), and 588,395 ha are marginally suitable soils (class S-3), (Figure 1) . he irst suitability class (S-1) includes soils of very deep and deep ecological depth, with permeable, loamy to silty clay loam texture, good natural draining, aerated, neutral to very low acid reaction, on level terrains. he second suitability class (S-2) includes deep luvic soils on loess, of low humosity, well drained, with predominantly loamy texture, moderate permeability and compaction, low to very acid reaction, on mildly sloping terrains. A smaller part of this class also comprises soils hydroameliorated through canals from humogley loamy, and drained pseudogley soils. he third suitability class (S-3) of soils for oilseed rape production comprises soils characterized by limitations such as: stagnation of precipitation water, sandy texture, high acidity, medium deep groundwater table, unfavourable water-air relationship, and incomplete to poor drainage. Due to these limitations, oilseed rape should not be grown on these soils. Oilseed rape has almost optimal temperature conditions for good emergence and strong initial growth as well as for its autumn growth (August - October). he average mean monthly air temperature in the autumn growth period is 15.4oC (Graph 1). he average amount of precipitation during oilseed rape autumn growth is 224 mm (Graph 2). Eastern Croatia (Osijek) has the lowest precipitation, which in some years causes slower and non-uniform emergence of oilseed rape. In the winter period (November, December, January, February), the average mean monthly air temperature is 2oC while the average minimum air temperature is -1.5oC (Graph 3). he greatest hazards in this period are low minimum air temperatures, especially if soil is saturated with water and without a snow cover (Mustapić et al., 1986). he average amount of precipitation in winter is 222 mm (Graph 4). he lowest amount of precipitation falls in Osijek (187 mm) and the highest in Sisak (257 mm). In the spring period (March, April), the average mean monthly air temperature was 8.4oC (Graph 5). Agric. conspec. sci. Vol. 76 (2011) No. 1 Suitability of Soil and Climate for Oilseed Rape Production in the Republic of Croatia Figure 1. Map of land suitability 30.0 t mean 25.0 22.8 22.4 t max 21.6 t min 20.9 t average 300 20.9 total precipitation 21.7 21.4 250 20.0 15.7 0 15.8 15.5 15.0 14.7 14.8 C 15.0 10.5 10.0 9.7 9.1 9.5 9.7 10.5 200 15.4 10.3 mm 16.1 average 221 253 261 241 222 224 199 170 150 100 5.0 50 0 0.0 Osijek Slavonski Đurđevac Križevci Varaždin Brod Zagreb Sisak Osijek Slavonski Ðurdevac Križevci Varaždin Brod Zagreb Sisak Graph 1. Mean, minimum and maximum monthly air temperatures during the period of oilseed rape autumn growth (August - October) Graph 2. Total monthly precipitation during the period of oilseed rape autumn growth (August – October) he average amount of precipitation in the period of oilseed rape spring growth was 108 mm (Graph 6). he highest amount of precipitation falls in Sisak (124 mm) and the lowest in Osijek (92 mm). As this is the period in which oilseed rape needs most water, especially at the stage of its intensive growth, the above amounts seem insuicient. However, if there is suicient winter moisture, these amounts are satisfactory for good spring growth and nutrient uptake. From the end of oilseed rape lowering to ripening (May, June), the average mean monthly air temperature was 17.3oC (Graph 7). Agric. conspec. sci. Vol. 76 (2011) No. 1 37 38 Milan POSPIŠIL, Marina BRČIĆ, Stjepan HUSNJAK 30.0 t mean t max t min t average 25.0 300 20.0 250 15.0 average 219 222 208 216 257 222 187 C 10.0 6.2 6.0 5.0 5.7 2.0 2.0 1.8 1.7 1.7 6.0 5.6 5.3 6.1 mm 0 200 total precipitation 244 100 2.4 2.3 150 2.0 0.0 50 -1.9 -1.3 Slavonski Đurđevac Križevci Varaždin Brod Zagreb -1.1 -1.4 -1.9 -2.0 -1.3 -5.0 0 Osijek Sisak Osijek Slavonski Ðurdevac Križevci Varaždin Brod Zagreb Sisak Graph 4. Total monthly precipitation in the winter period (November, December, January, February) Graph 3. Mean, minimum and maximum monthly air temperatures in the winter period (November, December, January, February) 30.0 t mean t max t min t average 300 25.0 total precipitation 250 average 20.0 C 15.0 10.0 14.8 14.8 13.5 14.0 13.4 14.1 200 14.5 mm 0 8.8 8.8 7.9 8.1 102 8.4 100 3.5 50 3.4 2.5 2.7 3.4 2.9 Osijek Slavonski Đurđevac Križevci Varaždin Brod Zagreb Osijek Sisak Graph 5. Mean, minimum and maximum monthly air temperatures during the period from oilseed rape spring growth to flowering (March - April) t mean 30.0 112 124 24.1 t max 23.2 23.6 23.9 t min Slavonski Ðurdevac Križevci Brod 18.2 17.7 12.1 16.9 16.6 10.8 17.0 10.7 Zagreb Sisak t average 23.3 13.4 Varaždin Graph 6. Total monthly precipitation during the period from oilseed rape spring growth to flowering (March – April) 300 23.7 23.6 17.8 17.3 total precipitation 10.9 200 17.3 11.4 11.5 10.0 mm C 15.0 114 108 250 0 104 0 0.0 20.0 111 92 7.2 5.0 25.0 150 9.0 8.6 8.1 150 141 152 164 166 average 168 168 174 162 100 5.0 50 0.0 0 Osijek Slavonski Đurđevac Križevci Varaždin Brod Zagreb Sisak Osijek Slavonski Ðurdevac Križevci Varaždin Brod Zagreb Sisak Graph 7. Mean, minimum and maximum monthly air temperatures in the period from the end of oilseed rape flowering to ripening (May – June) Graph 8. Total monthly precipitation during the period from the end of oilseed rape flowering to ripening (May – June) Average maximum air temperatures above 30oC are critical at the lowering stage (Kutcher et al., 2010). In the Pannonian Plain of the Republic of Croatia, average mean monthly air temperatures varied from 23.2oC (Križevci) to 24.1oC (Osijek). Average precipitation of 162 mm was recorded in the last part of the growing period (Graph 8). his is also a critical period for oilseed rape because of the drought, which has a strong impact on seed yield and quality. On the other hand, frequent and ex- Agric. conspec. sci. Vol. 76 (2011) No. 1 Suitability of Soil and Climate for Oilseed Rape Production in the Republic of Croatia cessive precipitation depresses seed illing and silique formation, and favours disease development. he sum of mean daily air temperatures in the oilseed rape growing period ranged from 2452oC (Križevci) to 2737oC (Sisak). Between 528 mm (Osijek) and 718 mm (Sisak) of precipitation falls over the growing period, which fully satisies water requirements of oilseed rape. Conclusions In the agricultural region of the Pannonian Plain in the Republic of Croatia, oilseed rape can be grown without greater limitations at an area of 581,231 ha. To satisfy the planned raw oil requirements of the Republic of Croatia, 60,000-70,000 ha per year should be allotted to oilseed rape production (10-12% areas under soils from suitable to moderately suitable classes). In the agroecological conditions of the Republic of Croatia, air temperatures are not a limiting factor for oilseed rape production. here are no expressly critical periods in terms of precipitation deiciency in the growing period either. he most critical period is the sowing-emergence time, since very dry August and September, i.e. lack of moisture for satisfactory and uniform emergence of oilseed rape, were recorded in eastern Croatia in some years. References Bogunović M., Vidaček Ž., Racz Z., Husnjak S., Sraka M. (1997). Namjenska pedološka karta Republike Hrvatske i njena upotreba. Agronomski glasnik 59 (5-6): 363-399. Champolivier L., Merrien A. (1996). Efects of water stress applied at diferent growth stages to Brassica napus L. var. oleifera on yield, yield components and seed quality. European Journal of Agronomy 5: 153-160. FAO (1976). A framework for Land Evaluation. Soils Bulletin 32, FAO, Rome and ILRI, Wageningen, Publ. No. 22 Husnjak S., Bogunović M., Jurišić M. (2000) Geoinformatička obrada pedoloških podataka za uzgoj povrća na području Sisačko-moslavačke županije. Agronomski glasnik 5-6:227-246. Husnjak S., Vidaček Ž., Bogunović M., Sraka M., Bensa A., Vrhovec D. (2005). Zemljišni resursi Hrvatske i pogodnost tla za navodnjavanje. Dio „Nacionalni projekt navodnjavanja i gospodarenja poljoprivrednim zemljištem i vodama u Republici Hrvatskoj“. Agronomski fakultet Zagreb, Zavod za pedologiju Istanbulluoglu A., Arslan B., Gocmen E., Gezer E., Pasa C. (2010). Efects of deicit irrigation regimes on the yield and growth of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.). Biosystems engineering 105(3): 388-394. Kutcher H.R., Warland J.S., Brandt S.A. (2010). Temperature and precipitation efects of canola yields in Saskatchewan, Canada. Agricultural and Forest meterology 150: 161-165. Morrison M.J., Stewart D.W. (2002). Heat stress during lowering in summer Brassica, Crop Science 42: 797–803. Mustapić Z., Gašperov S. (1985). Problemi tehnologije proizvodnje uljane repice u cilju daljnjeg povećanja prinosa. Poljoprivredne aktualnosti, 22(1-2): 89-101. Mustapić Z., Kunšten B., Gašperov S., Capar M., Danon V., Čizmić I. (1986). Analiza proizvodnje uljane repice u SRH od 1981.1985. godine. Poljoprivredne aktualnosti 26(3): 525-540. Pospišil M., Škevin D., Mustapić Z., Neđeral Nakić S., Butorac J., Matijević D. (2007). Fatty Acid Composition in Oil of Recent Rapeseed Hybrids and 00-Cultivars. Agriculturae Conspectus Scientiicus, 72(3): 187-193. Vidaček, Ž. (1981). Procjena proizvodnog prostora i prikladnosti tla za natapanje u istočnoj Slavoniji i Baranji. Poljoprivredna znanstvena smotra 57:471-502. Zaninović K., Gajić - Čapka, M., Perčec-Tadić M., Katušin Z., Milković J., Mihajlović D., Cindrić K., Cvitan L., Perčec Tadić M., Srnec L., Patarčić M., Vučetić V., Lončar E., Bajić A., Kaučić D., Vučetić M., Lončar Ž., Pandžić K., Lisko T. (2008). Klimatski atlas Hrvatske 1971-2000. Državni hidrometeorološki zavod, Zagreb. acs76_06 Agric. conspec. sci. Vol. 76 (2011) No. 1 39 equilibrium value of MeCpG steps (,+14 deg.) [31,44]. In comparison, methylation has a significantly lower stability cost when happening at major groove positions, such as 211 and 21 base pair from dyad (mutations 9 and 12), where the roll of the nucleosome bound conformation (+10 deg.) is more compatible with the equilibrium geometry of MeCpG steps. The nucleosome destabilizing effect of cytosine methylation increases with the number of methylated cytosines, following the same position dependence as the single methylations. The multiple-methylation case reveals that each major groove meth- PLOS Computational Biology | www.ploscompbiol.org 3 November 2013 | Volume 9 | Issue 11 | e1003354 DNA Methylation and Nucleosome Positioning ylation destabilizes the nucleosome by around 1 kJ/mol (close to the average estimate of 2 kJ/mol obtained for from individual methylation studies), while each minor groove methylation destabilizes it by up to 5 kJ/mol (average free energy as single mutation is around 6 kJ/mol). This energetic position-dependence is the reverse of what was observed in a recent FRET/SAXS study [30]. The differences can be attributed to the use of different ionic conditions and different sequences: a modified Widom-601 sequence of 157 bp, which already contains multiple CpG steps in mixed orientations, and which could assume different positioning due to the introduction of new CpG steps and by effect of the methylation. The analysis of our trajectories reveals a larger root mean square deviation (RMSD) and fluctuation (RMSF; see Figures S2– S3 in Text S1) for the methylated nucleosomes, but failed to detect any systematic change in DNA geometry or in intermolecular DNA-histone energy related to methylation (Fig. S1B, S1C, S4–S6 in Text S1). The hydrophobic effect should favor orientation of the methyl group out from the solvent but this effect alone is not likely to justify the positional dependent stability changes in Figure 2, as the differential solvation of the methyl groups in the bound and unbound states is only in the order of a fraction of a water molecule (Figure S5 in Text S1). We find however, a reasonable correlation between methylation-induced changes in hydrogen bond and stacking interactions of the bases and the change in nucleosome stability (see Figure S6 in Text S1). This finding suggests that methylation-induced nucleosome destabilization is related to the poorer ability of methylated DNA to fit into the required conformation for DNA in a nucleosome. Changes in the elastic deformation energy between methylated and un-methylated DNA correlate with nucleosomal differential binding free energies To further analyze the idea that methylation-induced nucleosome destabilization is connected to a worse fit of methylated DNA into the required nucleosome-bound conformation, we computed the elastic energy of the nucleosomal DNA using a harmonic deformation method [36,37,44]. This method provides a rough estimate of the energy required to deform a DNA fiber to adopt the super helical conformation in the nucleosome (full details in Suppl. Information Text S1). As shown in Figure 2, there is an evident correlation between the increase that methylation produces in the elastic deformation energy (DDE def.) and the free energy variation (DDG bind.) computed from MD/TI calculations. Clearly, methylation increases the stiffness of the CpG step [31], raising the energy cost required to wrap DNA around the histone octamers. This extra energy cost will be smaller in regions of high positive roll (naked DNA MeCpG steps have a higher roll than CpG steps [31]) than in regions of high negative roll. Thus, simple elastic considerations explain why methylation is better tolerated when the DNA faces the histones through the major groove (where positive roll is required) that when it faces histones through the minor groove (where negative roll is required). Nucleosome methylation can give rise to nucleosome repositioning We have established that methylation affects the wrapping of DNA in nucleosomes, but how does this translate into chromatin structure? As noted above, accumulation of minor groove methylations strongly destabilizes the nucleosome, and could trigger nucleosome unfolding, or notable changes in positioning or phasing of DNA around the histone core. While accumulation of methylations might be well tolerated if placed in favorable positions, accumulation in unfavorable positions would destabilize the nucleosome, which might trigger changes in chromatin structure. Chromatin could in fact react in two different ways in response to significant levels of methylation in unfavorable positions: i) the DNA could either detach from the histone core, leading to nucleosome eviction or nucleosome repositioning, or ii) the DNA could rotate around the histone core, changing its phase to place MeCpG steps in favorable positions. Both effects are anticipated to alter DNA accessibility and impact gene expression regulation. The sub-microsecond time scale of our MD trajectories of methylated DNAs bound to nucleosomes is not large enough to capture these effects, but clear trends are visible in cases of multiple mutations occurring in unfavorable positions, where unmethylated and methylated DNA sequences are out of phase by around 28 degrees (Figure S7 in Text S1). Due to this repositioning, large or small, DNA could move and the nucleosome structure could assume a more compact and distorted conformation, as detected by Lee and Lee [29], or a slightly open conformation as found in Jimenez-Useche et al. [30]. Using the harmonic deformation method, we additionally predicted the change in stability induced by cytosine methylation for millions of different nucleosomal DNA sequences. Consistently with our calculations, we used two extreme scenarios to prepare our DNA sequences (see Fig. 3): i) all positions where the minor grooves contact the histone core are occupied by CpG steps, and ii) all positions where the major grooves contact the histone core are occupied by CpG steps. We then computed the elastic energy required to wrap the DNA around the histone proteins in unmethylated and methylated states, and, as expected, observed that methylation disfavors DNA wrapping (Figure 3A). We have rescaled the elastic energy differences with a factor of 0.23 to match the DDG prediction in figure 2B. In agreement with the rest of our results, our analysis confirms that the effect of methylation is position-dependent. In fact, the overall difference between the two extreme methylation scenarios (all-in-minor vs all-in-major) is larger than 60 kJ/mol, the average difference being around 15 kJ/ mol. We have also computed the elastic energy differences for a million sequences with CpG/MeCpG steps positioned at all possible intermediate locations with respect to the position (figure 3B). The large differences between the extreme cases can induce rotations of DNA around the histone core, shifting its phase to allow the placement of the methylated CpG steps facing the histones through the major groove. It is illustrative to compare the magnitude of CpG methylation penalty with sequence dependent differences. Since there are roughly 1.5e88 possible 147 base pairs long sequence combinations (i.e., (4n+4(n/2))/2, n = 147), it is unfeasible to calculate all the possible sequence effects. However, using our elastic model we can provide a range of values based on a reasonably large number of samples. If we consider all possible nucleosomal sequences in the yeast genome (around 12 Mbp), the energy difference between the best and the worst sequence that could form a nucleosome is 0.7 kj/mol per base (a minimum of 1 kJ/mol and maximum of around 1.7 kJ/mol per base, the first best and the last worst sequences are displayed in Table S3 in Text S1). We repeated the same calculation for one million random sequences and we obtained equivalent results. Placing one CpG step every helical turn gives an average energetic difference between minor groove and major groove methylation of 15 kJ/ mol, which translates into ,0.5 kJ/mol per methyl group, 2 kJ/ mol per base for the largest effects. Considering that not all nucleosome base pair steps are likely to be CpG steps, we can conclude that the balance between the destabilization due to CpG methylation and sequence repositioning will depend on the PLOS Computational Biology | www.ploscompbiol.org 4 November 2013 | Volume 9 | Issue 11 | e1003354 DNA Methylation and Nucleosome Positioning Figure 3. Methylated and non-methylated DNA elastic deformation energies. (A) Distribution of deformation energies for 147 bplong random DNA sequences with CpG steps positioned every 10 base steps (one helical turn) in minor (red and dark red) and major (light and dark blue) grooves respectively. The energy values were rescaled by the slope of a best-fit straight line of figure 2, which is 0.23, to por la lectura a través de la lectura de la prensa. La educación en los medios las fuerzas dispersas en función de los soportes mediáticos y orientarse más hacia la educación en medios que al dominio adquiere pleno derecho y entidad en la sección sexta titulada «competencias sociales y cívi- técnico de los aparatos. cas» que indica que «los alum- nos deberán ser capaces de juz- gar y tendrán espíritu crítico, lo que supone ser educados en los las programaciones oficiales, ya que, a lo largo de un medios y tener conciencia de su lugar y de su influencia estudio de los textos, los documentalistas del CLEMI en la sociedad». han podido señalar más de una centena de referencias a la educación de los medios en el seno de disciplinas 4. Un entorno positivo como el francés, la historia, la geografía, las lenguas, Si nos atenemos a las cifras, el panorama de la las artes plásticas : trabajos sobre las portadas de educación en medios es muy positivo. Una gran ope- prensa, reflexiones sobre temas mediáticos, análisis de ración de visibilidad como la «Semana de la prensa y publicidad, análisis de imágenes desde todos los ángu- de los medios en la escuela», coordinada por el CLE- los, reflexión sobre las noticias en los países europeos, MI, confirma año tras año, después de 17 convocato- información y opinión rias, el atractivo que ejerce sobre los profesores y los Esta presencia se constata desde la escuela mater- alumnos. Concebida como una gran operación de nal (2 a 6 años) donde, por ejemplo, se le pregunta a complementariedad entre la escuela y los profesiona- los niños más pequeños si saben diferenciar entre un les de los medios, alrededor del aprendizaje ciudada- periódico, un libro, un catálogo, a través de activida- no de la comunicación mediática, este evento moviliza des sensoriales, si saben para qué sirve un cartel, un durante toda una semana un porcentaje elevado de periódico, un cuaderno, un ordenador si son capa- centros escolares que representan un potencial de 4,3 ces de reconocer y distinguir imágenes de origen y de millones de alumnos (cifras de 2006). Basada en el naturaleza distintas. Podríamos continuar con más voluntariado, la semana permite desarrollar activida- ejemplos en todos los niveles de enseñanza y práctica- des más o menos ambiciosas centradas en la introduc- Páginas 43-48 ción de los medios en la vida de la escuela a través de la instalación de kioscos, organización de debates con profesionales y la confección por parte de los alumnos de documentos difundidos en los medios profesionales. Es la ocasión de dar un empujón a la educación en medios y de disfrutarlos. Los medios –un millar en 2006– se asocian de maneras diversas ofreciendo ejemplares de periódicos, acceso a noticias o a imágenes, proponiendo encuentros, permitiendo intervenir a los jóvenes en sus ondas o en sus columnas Esta operación da luz al trabajo de la educación en medios y moviliza a los diferentes participantes en el proyecto. 5. La formación de los docentes La formación es uno de los pilares principales de la educación en los medios. Su función es indispensable ya que no se trata de una disciplina, sino de una enseñanza que se hace sobre la base del voluntariado y del compromiso personal. Se trata de convencer, de mostrar, de interactuar. En primer lugar es necesario incluirla en la formación continua de los docentes, cuyo volumen se ha incrementado desde 1981 con la aparición de una verdadera política de formación continua de personal. Es difícil dar una imagen completa del volumen y del público, pero si nos atenemos a las cifras del CLEMI, hay más de 24.000 profesores que han asistido y se han involucrado durante 2004-05. 5.1. La formación continua En la mayoría de los casos, los profesores reciben su formación en contextos cercanos a su centro de trabajo, o incluso en este mismo. Después de una política centrada en la oferta que hacían los formadores, se valora más positivamente la demanda por parte del profesorado, ya que sólo así será verdaderamente fructífera. Los cursos de formación se repartieron en varias categorías: desde los formatos más tradicionales (cursos, debates, animaciones), hasta actividades de asesoramiento y de acompañamiento, y por supuesto los coloquios que permiten un trabajo en profundidad ya que van acompañados de expertos investigadores y profesionales. Citemos, por ejemplo en 2005, los coloquios del CLEMI-Toulouse sobre el cine documental o el del CLEMI-Dijon sobre «Políticos y medios: ¿connivencia?». Estos coloquios, que forman parte de un trabajo pedagógico regular, reagrupan a los diferentes participantes regionales y nacionales alrededor de grandes temas de la educación en medios y permiten generar nuevos conocimientos de aproximación y una profundización. Páginas 43-48 Hay otro tipo de formación original que se viene desarrollando desde hace menos tiempo, a través de cursos profesionales, como por ejemplo, en el Festival Internacional de Foto-periodismo «Visa para la imagen», en Perpignan. La formación se consolida en el curso, da acceso a las exposiciones, a las conferencias de profesionales y a los grandes debates, pero añade además propuestas pedagógicas y reflexiones didácticas destinadas a los docentes. Estas nuevas modalidades de formación son también consecuencia del agotamiento de la formación tradicional en las regiones. Los contenidos más frecuentes en formación continua conciernen tanto a los temas más clásicos como a los cambios que se están llevando a cabo en las prácticas mediáticas. Así encontramos distintas tendencias para 2004-05: La imagen desde el ángulo de la producción de imágenes animadas, el análisis de la imagen de la información o las imágenes del J.T. La prensa escrita y el periódico escolar. Internet y la información en línea. Medios y educación de los medios. 5.2 La formación inicial La formación inicial está aun en un grado muy ini- cial. El hecho de que la educación en medios no sea una disciplina impide su presencia en los IUFM (Institutos Universitarios de Formación de Maestros) que dan una prioridad absoluta a la didáctica de las disciplinas. En 2003, alrededor de 1.400 cursillistas sobre un total de 30.000 participaron en un momento u otro de un módulo de educación en medios. Estos módulos se ofrecen en función del interés que ese formador encuentra puntualmente y forman parte a menudo de varias disciplinas: documentación, letras, historia-geografía Estamos aún lejos de una política concertada en este dominio. La optativa «Cine-audiovisual» ha entrado desde hace muy poco tiempo en algunos IUFM destinada a obtener un certificado de enseñanza de la opción audiovisual y cine. Internet tiene cabida también en los cursos de formación inicial, recientemente con la aparición de un certificado informático y de Internet para los docentes, dirigido más a constatar competencias personales que a valorar una aptitud para enseñarlos. 6. ¿Y el futuro? El problema del futuro se plantea una vez más por la irrupción de nuevas técnicas y nuevos soportes. La difusión acelerada de lo digital replantea hoy muchas cuestiones relativas a prácticas mediáticas. Muchos Comunicar, 28, 2007 47 Comunicar, 28, 2007 Enrique Martínez-Salanova '2007 para Comunicar 48 trabajos que llevan el rótulo de la educación en medios solicitan una revisión ya que los conceptos cambian. La metodología elaborada en el marco de la educación en medios parece incluso permitir la inclinación de la sociedad de la información hacia una sociedad del conocimiento, como defiende la UNESCO. En Francia, se necesitaría unir las fuerzas dispersas en función de los soportes mediáticos y orientarse más hacia la educación en medios que al dominio técnico de los aparatos. Los avances recientes en el reconocimiento de estos contenidos y las competencias que supondrían podrían permitirlo. Referencias CLEMI/ACADEMIE DE BORDEAUX (Ed.) (2003): Parcours médias au collège: approches disciplinaires et transdisciplinaires. Aquitaine, Sceren-CRDP. GONNET, J. (2001): Education aux médias. Les controverses fécondes. Paris, Hachette Education/CNDP. SAVINO, J.; MARMIESSE, C. et BENSA, F. (2005): L’éducation aux médias de la maternelle au lycée. Direction de l’Enseignement Scolaire. Paris, Ministère de l’Education Nationale, Sceren/CNDP, Témoigner. BEVORT, E. et FREMONT, P. (2001): Médias, violence et education. Paris, CNDP, Actes et rapports pour l’éducation. – www.clemi.org: fiches pédagogiques, rapports et liens avec les pages régionales/académiques. – www.ac-nancy-metz.fr/cinemav/quai.html: Le site «Quai des images» est dédié à l’enseignement du cinéma et de l’audiovisuel. – www.france5.fr/education: la rubrique «Côté profs» a une entrée «education aux médias». – www.educaunet.org: Programme européen d’éducation aux risques liés à Internet. dResedfeleexliobnuetsacón Páginas 43-48
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