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DRINKING WATER QUALITY IN WELLS FROM AN AREA AFFECTED BY FLOOD EVENTS: CASE STUDY OF CURVATURE SUB-CARPATHIANS, ROMANIA

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DRINKING WATER QUALITY IN WELLS FROM AN AREA AFFECTED BY FLOOD EVENTS: CASE STUDY OF CURVATURE SUB-CARPATHIANS, ROMANIA ŞENILĂ M. 1, SIMA MIHAELA 2, LEVEI ERIKA 1, ROMAN M. 1, ŞENILĂ LĂCRIMIOARA 1, HOAGHIA ALEXANDRA 1, MICU DANA 2, CADAR OANA 1, BĂLTEANU D. 2 ABSTRACT. - Drinking water quality in wells from an area affected by flood events: case study of Curvature Sub-Carpathians, Romania. The present study evaluates the chemical parameters (inorganic anions and metals) of drinking water of twenty-four wells and the presence of Escherichia coli in ten selected wells located in two villages from Buzau and Prahova Counties, in Curvature Sub-Carpathians, Romania, a rural area frequently affected by flood events. Water samples were collected in July 2014. Concerntrations of fluorides, nitrites, chlorides and phosphates were below the maximum allowable concentrations (MACs) for drinking water established by European legislation (Drinking Water Directive 98/83/CE) in all the analysed samples. Concentration of nitrates exceeded MAC (50 mg L-1) in five samples, while concentration of sulphates exceeded MAC (250 mg L-1) in two samples. Among the analysed metals, Mn exceeded MAC (50 µg L-1) in two samples, while Cu, Pb, Zn, Fe, Na, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni and As concentrations did not exceeded the corresponding MACs. E. coli (over 2000 UFC 100 mL-1) was found in six water samples. The results show that majority of the studied parameters were below the threshold limits, however in some of the studied wells the water was found to be contaminated both by some chemical pollutants and by E. coli, which prepresent a risk for local population health. Keywords: drinking water quality, well water, inorganic contaminants, Curvature Sub-Carpathians, Escherichia coli, flood events 1. INTRODUCTION The environmental quality is varying constantly due to unfavorable environmental changes, mainly as a result of anthropogenic activities (Zobrist et al., 2009; Kataria et al., 2011). These modifications affect living organisms directly, or through the food-chain. Chemicals such as toxic metals and anions (sulfates, nitrates, nitrites, chlorides and phosphates) along with the microbiological load are the major sources of pollution for well waters. Inadequate water supply represents a major challenge in rural areas, where domestic wells are the main drinking water sources. In addintion, in areas affected by flood events, well water quality can be seriously damaged. Drinking water 1 2 INCDO-INOE 2000, Research Institute for Analytical Instrumentation, Cluj-Napoca, Romania E-mail: marin.senila@icia.ro Romanian Academy, Institute of Geography, 12 Dimitrie Racovita, 023993 Bucharest, Romania 266 quality has a direct effect on humans because is consumed as it is withouth any treatement (Celebi et al., 2014). The negative effects of contaminants depend on their toxicity but also on their concentrations, thus even elements that are essential in low concentrations, may become toxic above the concentration of threshold limits. In order to protect human health, the Drinking Water Directive request the control of public water systems to ensure that the water produced for human consumption can be consumed safely, do not contain microorganisms and toxic chemical substances are below specific threshold values (EU Directive 98/83/EC). According to World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines, there is a need of safe drinking water sources to provide at least 20 liters of water per person per day, up to 1 km radius of the user’s home (Calin and Rosu, 2011). It is estimated that, in rural areas of Romania, near 50% of households have their own wells as primary source of drinking water, while only 28% of households are connected to public water supply sytems (Both and Borza, 2011). Due to the anthropogenic activities, in conjunction with flood events, in some areas, the water from wells is increasingly contaminated. The present study evaluates the drinking water chemical parameters (inorganic anions and metals) from twenty-four wells and occurrence of Escherichia coli (E. coli) in ten wells located in two villages from Buzau and Prahova Counties, in Curvature Sub-Carpathians, Romania. 2. MATERIALS AND METHODS 2.1 Study area and sampling The study area is located in the Curvature Sub-Carpathians of Romania, in two willages from Buzau and, respectively, Prahova Counties (Figure 1). A number of 24 representative water samples (14 from Cerasu (CE) and 10 from Chiojdu (CH)) were collected from household and public wells, in July 2014. Because the sampling process is one of the key stage in the evaluation of water physcochemical characteristics, the sampling followed the recommendations of SR ISO 5667-11 standard. On site, 100 ml of sample were filtered (0.45 µm cellulose acetate filters) for the measurement of anions, while 100 ml sample were filtered and acidified with a few drops of concentrated nitric acid (to obtain pH<2) for the determination of metals. The pH and electrical conductivity (EC) were determined on site using a portable Multi 340i analyzer (WTW, Germany). For E. coli determination, water samples from 10 wells were collected in sterile containers. 2.2 Materials Ultrapure water obtained using a Millipore system was used for all dilutions. All used chemical reagents were of analytical grade. Ultrapure grade 65 % (m/m) HNO3 (Merck, Germany) was used for on site acidulation and digestion of water samples before metals determination. Stock multi-element solutions of 267 1000 µg mL-1 containing all the analysed metals (Merck, Germany) were used to calibrate spectrometers for metals determination. Stock multicomponent solutions containing Cl-, NO2-, NO3-, SO42-, PO43- of 1000 µg mL-1 (Merck, Germany) were used to calibrate ion chromatograph. Fig. 1. Sampling sites in Cerasu and Chiojdu willages Curvature Sub-Carpathians, Romania 2.3 Instrumentation and analytical determinations The major metals (Na, Ca, Mg, K, Fe) were determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry using a ICP-AES Optima 5300 DV Spectrometer (Perkin Elmer, Norwalk, USA) while trace elements (Cu, Pb, Zn, Mn, Cd, Cr, Ni, As) by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry using a ICPMS ELAN DRC II Spectrometer (Perkin-Elmer, Toronto, Canada). For the water samples digestion, 4 mL of concentrated nitric acid was used for in microwave digestion unit (OI Analytical, Canada) with pressure control. Anions were quantified directly in the filtered water by ion chromatography using the 761 Compact IC (Metrohm, Switzerland). E. coli was measured according to SR EN ISO 9308-1:2004 method, based on membrane filtration, subsequent culture on a chromogenic coliform agar medium, and calculation of the number of target organisms in the sample. The accuracy of metals determination was checked by analyzing NIST 1643e freshwater (NIST, Canada), while that of anions analysing the BCR 616 artificial groundwater certified reference sample (IRMM, Belgium). Recovery degrees ranged between 97-108 % for metals and 95-114 % for anions, showing a good accuracy for the used analytical methods. 268 3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 3.1. Electrochemical parameters and major anions The concentration of main analysed indicators in collected water samples and Maximum Allowable Concentrations (MACs) are presented in Table 1. Table 1. Concentration of selected indicators in wells water samples Sample pH EC pH unit µScm-1 F- Cl- NO3- SO42mg L-1 Na 8.02 471 0.16 2.43 3.20 54.0 11.9 CH1* 7.77 620 0.23 2.10 1.41 149 10.6 CH2 8.04 706 0.25 1.19 1.23 101 32.4 CH3 7.91 673 0.16 7.26 9.74 108 17.1 CH4 8.09 470 0.16 2.40 0.79 58.8 13.3 CH5 7.61 790 0.14 13.9 29.5 119 23.2 CH6 7.66 860 0.14 23.5 46.7 118 22.4 CH7 7.70 918 0.14 23.9 58.6 123 26.1 CH8 7.53 967 0.18 30.9 28.9 177 33.4 CH9 7.67 691 0.18 11.6 11.6 143 22.9 CH10 7.08 607 0.24 15.6 7.25 132 22.9 CE1* 7.46 1060 0.13 35.5 65.7 126 33.8 CE2 7.09 364 0.18 2.07 1.64 89.4 25.2 CE3 7.62 494 0.25 5.51 0.72 77.8 26.6 CE4 7.49 1253 0.11 60.3 118 101 46.5 CE5 7.54 784 0.13 11.7 8.34 85.0 23.1 CE6 7.39 1114 0.12 36.1 99.9 104 28.8 CE7 7.11 2400 0.18 2.71 <0.1 1330 38.5 CE8 7.19 1793 0.17 2.04 1.75 91.4 13.5 CE9 7.34 739 0.23 5.63 <0.1 74.4 12.7 CE10 7.55 640 0.22 2.43 0.63 67.4 7.06 CE11 7.22 503 0.15 2.29 6.23 39.2 15.5 CE12 7.31 1658 0.16 82.5 54.5 539 53.8 CE13 7.39 550 0.17 0.66 0.66 13.1 3.57 CE14 - 1.20 250 50 250 200 MAC** 6.5-8.5 *CH – Chiojdu; CE – Cerasu **MAC - maximum allowable concentration Mn Cu Zn µg L-1 Pb <1.0 <1.0 1.10 <1.0 <1.0 28.2 <1.0 <1.0 <1.0 <1.0 470 5.11 6.72 20.3 20.2 5.22 1.41 285 3.20 2.22 9.21 1.90 1.56 4.20 50 3.50 22.4 7.31 21.9 16.9 23.5 3.44 33.1 4.30 38.0 8.10 129 <1.0 14.1 3.71 37.9 1.28 6.40 1.30 32.2 <1.0 20.8 3.60 19.7 12.3 112 <1.0 15.5 30.2 214 1.10 23.7 10.3 62.5 <1.0 5.60 <1.0 98.6 9.6 66.8 4.1 117 3.3 114 4.4 39.2 <1.0 11.7 100 5000 <1.0 <1.0 <1.0 <1.0 <1.0 <1.0 <1.0 <1.0 <1.0 <1.0 <1.0 <1.0 <1.0 <1.0 <1.0 <1.0 <1.0 <1.0 <1.0 <1.0 <1.0 <1.0 <1.0 <1.0 10 As presented in Table 1, the pH values for water samples in CH and CE were found in the ranges of 7.52 – 8.09 and 7.08 – 7.62, respectively. Thus, the pH values were in the range of values considered normal for drinking water (Drinking Water Directive 98/83/CE). The EC values in CH and CE were in the ranges of 470 – 967 µS cm−1 and 364 – 2400 µS cm−1, respectively. 269 Among the analysed anions, sulphate was found in the higher concentrations, with values ranges of 54.0 – 177 mg L−1 in CH and 13.1 – 1330 mg L−1 in CE. In two wells situated close to a watercourse coming from a local stone pit the MAC for sulphates (250 mg L−1) was exceeded. Chlorides concentrations were in the ranges of 1.19 – 30.9 mg L−1 in CH and 0.66 – 82.5 mg L−1 in CE, all the values being below the MAC of 250 mg L−1. Fluorides concentrations, ranging in the all samples between 0.11 – 0.25 mg L−1, were also below the MAC of 1.20 mg L−1. The concentrations of nitrites and phosphates (data not shown in Table) were, in all cases, below limits of detections (0.05 mg L-1) and below the corresponding MACs. High levels of nitrates concentrations in waters can be a consequence of domestic and agricultural activities. Nitrates concentrations varied significantly in analysed samples, being in the ranges of 0.79 – 58.6 mg L−1 in CH and <0.1 – 118 mg L−1 in CE. Thus, it was exceeded the MAC for drinking water (50 mg L-1) in five water samples (one in CH and four in CE), collected from private wells located proximate to the agricultural activities. 3.2. Concentrations of metals in wells water As shown in Table 1, the concentrations of Na were in the ranges of 10.6 – 33.4 mg L−1 in CH and 3.57 – 53.8 mg L−1 in CE, all the values being below the MAC of 200 mg L−1. For the other major cations (Ca, Mg, K) there are not established maximum values for drinking water. The values of Ca concentrations measured in collected samples were in the range of 25.6 – 423 mg L−1. Mg concentrations ranged between 5.20 – 25.7 mg L−1, while values of K concentrations were in the domain of 0.66 – 50.1 mg L−1. From the analysed trace metals, the concentration of Mn exceeded MAC (50 µg L-1) in two water samples. The concentrations of Cu ranged between <1.0 – 30.2 µg L-1, and were in all cases below MAC (100 µg L-1). The concentrations of Zn were considerably below MAC (5000 µg L-1) ranging between 5.60 – 214 µg L-1, while the concentrations of Pb in water samples were below MAC and below limit of detection in all the analysed samples. The levels of Fe, Na, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni and As concentratios (data not shown in a Table) did not exceeded MACs in any of the analysed samples. 3.3. Biological indicators of wells water For public health protection, E. coli is considered the best biological drinking water indicator, thus it is not required to investigate drinking water for all pathogens (Edberg et al., 2000). E. coli can be found in all mammal faeces, but it does not increase significantly in the environment. E. coli subsists in drinking water 4 to 12 weeks, depending on environmental conditions (Edberg et al., 2000). From the 10 analysed water samples, 6 samples were contaminated by E. coli with values of concentrations of over 2000 UFC 100 mL-1. Thus, despite the fact that chemical contamination does not raise a high concern in the studied area, the microbiological contamination in over 50% of the analysed samples represents a risk for human health. 270 4. CONCLUSIONS The evaluation of drinking water quality in 24 wells from two willages of Buzau and Prahova Counties, in Curvature Sub-Carpathians from Romania, affected by flood events, was carried out in order to have an awareness about the extent of physic-chemical and microbiological contamination in the study area. According to the obtained results the pH values are in normal ranges, while potential toxic anions such as nitrites and sulphates were found above MACs in few samples. Other anions, having permissible limits proposed by drinking water quality standards, such as fluorides, chlorides, nitrites and phosphates are in concentrations lower than MACs or even below limits of detection. For the analysed metals, concentrations higher than MAC were found only for Mn in two samples. However, a more concerning situation is represented by the presence of E. coli in more than half of the analysed samples. The results show that even if many of the analysed inorganic anions and metals were below the maximum limits, the concentrations above MACs of nitrates, sulphates and Mn in some samples as well as the presence of E. coli in drinking water represent a risk for the health of local population. Acknowledgements This work was supported by Romanian financing authority CNCS – UEFISCDI, Partnership, project VULMIN, Contract No. 52/2012. REFERENCES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Calin D. I., Rosu C., (2011), Drinking water quality assessment of rural wells from Aiud Area. AES Bioflux 3, 108-122. Celebi A., Sengorur B. & Klove B., (2014), Human health risk assessment of dissolved metals in groundwater and surface waters in the Melen watershed, Turkey. Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part A 49, 153–161. Edberg S.C., E.W. Rice, Karlin R.J., Allen M.J., (2000), Escherichia coli: the best biological drinking water indicator for public health protection. Journal of Applied Microbiology 88, 106S–116S. Kataria H.C., Gupta M., Kumar M., Kushwaha S., Kashyap S., Trivedi S., Bhadoriya R., & Bandewar N.K., (2011), Study of physico-chemical parameters of drinking water of Bhopal city with reference to health impacts. Current World Environment 6, 95-99. Zobrist J., Sima M., Dogaru D., Senila M., Yang H., Popescu C., Roman C., Abraham B., Linda F., Dold B. & Balteanu D., (2009), Environmental and socioeconomic assessment of impacts by mining activities - A case study in the Certej River catchment, Western Carpathians, Romania. Environmental Science and Pollution Research S16, 14-26. *** (1998), Official Journal of the European Communities, COUNCIL DIRECTIVE 98/83/EC, http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ, accessed on June 15 2014. 271 equilibrium value of MeCpG steps (,+14 deg.) [31,44]. In comparison, methylation has a significantly lower stability cost when happening at major groove positions, such as 211 and 21 base pair from dyad (mutations 9 and 12), where the roll of the nucleosome bound conformation (+10 deg.) is more compatible with the equilibrium geometry of MeCpG steps. The nucleosome destabilizing effect of cytosine methylation increases with the number of methylated cytosines, following the same position dependence as the single methylations. The multiple-methylation case reveals that each major groove meth- PLOS Computational Biology | www.ploscompbiol.org 3 November 2013 | Volume 9 | Issue 11 | e1003354 DNA Methylation and Nucleosome Positioning ylation destabilizes the nucleosome by around 1 kJ/mol (close to the average estimate of 2 kJ/mol obtained for from individual methylation studies), while each minor groove methylation destabilizes it by up to 5 kJ/mol (average free energy as single mutation is around 6 kJ/mol). This energetic position-dependence is the reverse of what was observed in a recent FRET/SAXS study [30]. The differences can be attributed to the use of different ionic conditions and different sequences: a modified Widom-601 sequence of 157 bp, which already contains multiple CpG steps in mixed orientations, and which could assume different positioning due to the introduction of new CpG steps and by effect of the methylation. The analysis of our trajectories reveals a larger root mean square deviation (RMSD) and fluctuation (RMSF; see Figures S2– S3 in Text S1) for the methylated nucleosomes, but failed to detect any systematic change in DNA geometry or in intermolecular DNA-histone energy related to methylation (Fig. S1B, S1C, S4–S6 in Text S1). The hydrophobic effect should favor orientation of the methyl group out from the solvent but this effect alone is not likely to justify the positional dependent stability changes in Figure 2, as the differential solvation of the methyl groups in the bound and unbound states is only in the order of a fraction of a water molecule (Figure S5 in Text S1). We find however, a reasonable correlation between methylation-induced changes in hydrogen bond and stacking interactions of the bases and the change in nucleosome stability (see Figure S6 in Text S1). This finding suggests that methylation-induced nucleosome destabilization is related to the poorer ability of methylated DNA to fit into the required conformation for DNA in a nucleosome. Changes in the elastic deformation energy between methylated and un-methylated DNA correlate with nucleosomal differential binding free energies To further analyze the idea that methylation-induced nucleosome destabilization is connected to a worse fit of methylated DNA into the required nucleosome-bound conformation, we computed the elastic energy of the nucleosomal DNA using a harmonic deformation method [36,37,44]. This method provides a rough estimate of the energy required to deform a DNA fiber to adopt the super helical conformation in the nucleosome (full details in Suppl. Information Text S1). As shown in Figure 2, there is an evident correlation between the increase that methylation produces in the elastic deformation energy (DDE def.) and the free energy variation (DDG bind.) computed from MD/TI calculations. Clearly, methylation increases the stiffness of the CpG step [31], raising the energy cost required to wrap DNA around the histone octamers. This extra energy cost will be smaller in regions of high positive roll (naked DNA MeCpG steps have a higher roll than CpG steps [31]) than in regions of high negative roll. Thus, simple elastic considerations explain why methylation is better tolerated when the DNA faces the histones through the major groove (where positive roll is required) that when it faces histones through the minor groove (where negative roll is required). Nucleosome methylation can give rise to nucleosome repositioning We have established that methylation affects the wrapping of DNA in nucleosomes, but how does this translate into chromatin structure? As noted above, accumulation of minor groove methylations strongly destabilizes the nucleosome, and could trigger nucleosome unfolding, or notable changes in positioning or phasing of DNA around the histone core. While accumulation of methylations might be well tolerated if placed in favorable positions, accumulation in unfavorable positions would destabilize the nucleosome, which might trigger changes in chromatin structure. Chromatin could in fact react in two different ways in response to significant levels of methylation in unfavorable positions: i) the DNA could either detach from the histone core, leading to nucleosome eviction or nucleosome repositioning, or ii) the DNA could rotate around the histone core, changing its phase to place MeCpG steps in favorable positions. Both effects are anticipated to alter DNA accessibility and impact gene expression regulation. The sub-microsecond time scale of our MD trajectories of methylated DNAs bound to nucleosomes is not large enough to capture these effects, but clear trends are visible in cases of multiple mutations occurring in unfavorable positions, where unmethylated and methylated DNA sequences are out of phase by around 28 degrees (Figure S7 in Text S1). Due to this repositioning, large or small, DNA could move and the nucleosome structure could assume a more compact and distorted conformation, as detected by Lee and Lee [29], or a slightly open conformation as found in Jimenez-Useche et al. [30]. Using the harmonic deformation method, we additionally predicted the change in stability induced by cytosine methylation for millions of different nucleosomal DNA sequences. Consistently with our calculations, we used two extreme scenarios to prepare our DNA sequences (see Fig. 3): i) all positions where the minor grooves contact the histone core are occupied by CpG steps, and ii) all positions where the major grooves contact the histone core are occupied by CpG steps. We then computed the elastic energy required to wrap the DNA around the histone proteins in unmethylated and methylated states, and, as expected, observed that methylation disfavors DNA wrapping (Figure 3A). We have rescaled the elastic energy differences with a factor of 0.23 to match the DDG prediction in figure 2B. In agreement with the rest of our results, our analysis confirms that the effect of methylation is position-dependent. In fact, the overall difference between the two extreme methylation scenarios (all-in-minor vs all-in-major) is larger than 60 kJ/mol, the average difference being around 15 kJ/ mol. We have also computed the elastic energy differences for a million sequences with CpG/MeCpG steps positioned at all possible intermediate locations with respect to the position (figure 3B). The large differences between the extreme cases can induce rotations of DNA around the histone core, shifting its phase to allow the placement of the methylated CpG steps facing the histones through the major groove. It is illustrative to compare the magnitude of CpG methylation penalty with sequence dependent differences. Since there are roughly 1.5e88 possible 147 base pairs long sequence combinations (i.e., (4n+4(n/2))/2, n = 147), it is unfeasible to calculate all the possible sequence effects. However, using our elastic model we can provide a range of values based on a reasonably large number of samples. If we consider all possible nucleosomal sequences in the yeast genome (around 12 Mbp), the energy difference between the best and the worst sequence that could form a nucleosome is 0.7 kj/mol per base (a minimum of 1 kJ/mol and maximum of around 1.7 kJ/mol per base, the first best and the last worst sequences are displayed in Table S3 in Text S1). We repeated the same calculation for one million random sequences and we obtained equivalent results. Placing one CpG step every helical turn gives an average energetic difference between minor groove and major groove methylation of 15 kJ/ mol, which translates into ,0.5 kJ/mol per methyl group, 2 kJ/ mol per base for the largest effects. Considering that not all nucleosome base pair steps are likely to be CpG steps, we can conclude that the balance between the destabilization due to CpG methylation and sequence repositioning will depend on the PLOS Computational Biology | www.ploscompbiol.org 4 November 2013 | Volume 9 | Issue 11 | e1003354 DNA Methylation and Nucleosome Positioning Figure 3. Methylated and non-methylated DNA elastic deformation energies. (A) Distribution of deformation energies for 147 bplong random DNA sequences with CpG steps positioned every 10 base steps (one helical turn) in minor (red and dark red) and major (light and dark blue) grooves respectively. The energy values were rescaled by the slope of a best-fit straight line of figure 2, which is 0.23, to por la lectura a través de la lectura de la prensa. La educación en los medios las fuerzas dispersas en función de los soportes mediáticos y orientarse más hacia la educación en medios que al dominio adquiere pleno derecho y entidad en la sección sexta titulada «competencias sociales y cívi- técnico de los aparatos. cas» que indica que «los alum- nos deberán ser capaces de juz- gar y tendrán espíritu crítico, lo que supone ser educados en los las programaciones oficiales, ya que, a lo largo de un medios y tener conciencia de su lugar y de su influencia estudio de los textos, los documentalistas del CLEMI en la sociedad». han podido señalar más de una centena de referencias a la educación de los medios en el seno de disciplinas 4. Un entorno positivo como el francés, la historia, la geografía, las lenguas, Si nos atenemos a las cifras, el panorama de la las artes plásticas : trabajos sobre las portadas de educación en medios es muy positivo. Una gran ope- prensa, reflexiones sobre temas mediáticos, análisis de ración de visibilidad como la «Semana de la prensa y publicidad, análisis de imágenes desde todos los ángu- de los medios en la escuela», coordinada por el CLE- los, reflexión sobre las noticias en los países europeos, MI, confirma año tras año, después de 17 convocato- información y opinión rias, el atractivo que ejerce sobre los profesores y los Esta presencia se constata desde la escuela mater- alumnos. Concebida como una gran operación de nal (2 a 6 años) donde, por ejemplo, se le pregunta a complementariedad entre la escuela y los profesiona- los niños más pequeños si saben diferenciar entre un les de los medios, alrededor del aprendizaje ciudada- periódico, un libro, un catálogo, a través de activida- no de la comunicación mediática, este evento moviliza des sensoriales, si saben para qué sirve un cartel, un durante toda una semana un porcentaje elevado de periódico, un cuaderno, un ordenador si son capa- centros escolares que representan un potencial de 4,3 ces de reconocer y distinguir imágenes de origen y de millones de alumnos (cifras de 2006). Basada en el naturaleza distintas. Podríamos continuar con más voluntariado, la semana permite desarrollar activida- ejemplos en todos los niveles de enseñanza y práctica- des más o menos ambiciosas centradas en la introduc- Páginas 43-48 ción de los medios en la vida de la escuela a través de la instalación de kioscos, organización de debates con profesionales y la confección por parte de los alumnos de documentos difundidos en los medios profesionales. Es la ocasión de dar un empujón a la educación en medios y de disfrutarlos. Los medios –un millar en 2006– se asocian de maneras diversas ofreciendo ejemplares de periódicos, acceso a noticias o a imágenes, proponiendo encuentros, permitiendo intervenir a los jóvenes en sus ondas o en sus columnas Esta operación da luz al trabajo de la educación en medios y moviliza a los diferentes participantes en el proyecto. 5. La formación de los docentes La formación es uno de los pilares principales de la educación en los medios. Su función es indispensable ya que no se trata de una disciplina, sino de una enseñanza que se hace sobre la base del voluntariado y del compromiso personal. Se trata de convencer, de mostrar, de interactuar. En primer lugar es necesario incluirla en la formación continua de los docentes, cuyo volumen se ha incrementado desde 1981 con la aparición de una verdadera política de formación continua de personal. Es difícil dar una imagen completa del volumen y del público, pero si nos atenemos a las cifras del CLEMI, hay más de 24.000 profesores que han asistido y se han involucrado durante 2004-05. 5.1. La formación continua En la mayoría de los casos, los profesores reciben su formación en contextos cercanos a su centro de trabajo, o incluso en este mismo. Después de una política centrada en la oferta que hacían los formadores, se valora más positivamente la demanda por parte del profesorado, ya que sólo así será verdaderamente fructífera. Los cursos de formación se repartieron en varias categorías: desde los formatos más tradicionales (cursos, debates, animaciones), hasta actividades de asesoramiento y de acompañamiento, y por supuesto los coloquios que permiten un trabajo en profundidad ya que van acompañados de expertos investigadores y profesionales. Citemos, por ejemplo en 2005, los coloquios del CLEMI-Toulouse sobre el cine documental o el del CLEMI-Dijon sobre «Políticos y medios: ¿connivencia?». Estos coloquios, que forman parte de un trabajo pedagógico regular, reagrupan a los diferentes participantes regionales y nacionales alrededor de grandes temas de la educación en medios y permiten generar nuevos conocimientos de aproximación y una profundización. Páginas 43-48 Hay otro tipo de formación original que se viene desarrollando desde hace menos tiempo, a través de cursos profesionales, como por ejemplo, en el Festival Internacional de Foto-periodismo «Visa para la imagen», en Perpignan. La formación se consolida en el curso, da acceso a las exposiciones, a las conferencias de profesionales y a los grandes debates, pero añade además propuestas pedagógicas y reflexiones didácticas destinadas a los docentes. Estas nuevas modalidades de formación son también consecuencia del agotamiento de la formación tradicional en las regiones. Los contenidos más frecuentes en formación continua conciernen tanto a los temas más clásicos como a los cambios que se están llevando a cabo en las prácticas mediáticas. Así encontramos distintas tendencias para 2004-05: La imagen desde el ángulo de la producción de imágenes animadas, el análisis de la imagen de la información o las imágenes del J.T. La prensa escrita y el periódico escolar. Internet y la información en línea. Medios y educación de los medios. 5.2 La formación inicial La formación inicial está aun en un grado muy ini- cial. El hecho de que la educación en medios no sea una disciplina impide su presencia en los IUFM (Institutos Universitarios de Formación de Maestros) que dan una prioridad absoluta a la didáctica de las disciplinas. En 2003, alrededor de 1.400 cursillistas sobre un total de 30.000 participaron en un momento u otro de un módulo de educación en medios. Estos módulos se ofrecen en función del interés que ese formador encuentra puntualmente y forman parte a menudo de varias disciplinas: documentación, letras, historia-geografía Estamos aún lejos de una política concertada en este dominio. La optativa «Cine-audiovisual» ha entrado desde hace muy poco tiempo en algunos IUFM destinada a obtener un certificado de enseñanza de la opción audiovisual y cine. Internet tiene cabida también en los cursos de formación inicial, recientemente con la aparición de un certificado informático y de Internet para los docentes, dirigido más a constatar competencias personales que a valorar una aptitud para enseñarlos. 6. ¿Y el futuro? El problema del futuro se plantea una vez más por la irrupción de nuevas técnicas y nuevos soportes. La difusión acelerada de lo digital replantea hoy muchas cuestiones relativas a prácticas mediáticas. Muchos Comunicar, 28, 2007 47 Comunicar, 28, 2007 Enrique Martínez-Salanova '2007 para Comunicar 48 trabajos que llevan el rótulo de la educación en medios solicitan una revisión ya que los conceptos cambian. La metodología elaborada en el marco de la educación en medios parece incluso permitir la inclinación de la sociedad de la información hacia una sociedad del conocimiento, como defiende la UNESCO. En Francia, se necesitaría unir las fuerzas dispersas en función de los soportes mediáticos y orientarse más hacia la educación en medios que al dominio técnico de los aparatos. Los avances recientes en el reconocimiento de estos contenidos y las competencias que supondrían podrían permitirlo. Referencias CLEMI/ACADEMIE DE BORDEAUX (Ed.) (2003): Parcours médias au collège: approches disciplinaires et transdisciplinaires. Aquitaine, Sceren-CRDP. GONNET, J. (2001): Education aux médias. Les controverses fécondes. Paris, Hachette Education/CNDP. SAVINO, J.; MARMIESSE, C. et BENSA, F. (2005): L’éducation aux médias de la maternelle au lycée. Direction de l’Enseignement Scolaire. Paris, Ministère de l’Education Nationale, Sceren/CNDP, Témoigner. BEVORT, E. et FREMONT, P. (2001): Médias, violence et education. Paris, CNDP, Actes et rapports pour l’éducation. – www.clemi.org: fiches pédagogiques, rapports et liens avec les pages régionales/académiques. – www.ac-nancy-metz.fr/cinemav/quai.html: Le site «Quai des images» est dédié à l’enseignement du cinéma et de l’audiovisuel. – www.france5.fr/education: la rubrique «Côté profs» a une entrée «education aux médias». – www.educaunet.org: Programme européen d’éducation aux risques liés à Internet. dResedfeleexliobnuetsacón Páginas 43-48
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